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To synthesize information about management of end of life care in people with dementia using review papers.
There are increasing numbers of people being diagnosed with dementia worldwide, and the needs of people with dementia and their carers at the end of life may be different from those with other chronic diseases. By highlighting the challenges of palliative care in persons with dementia and the ways they are best managed, practitioners in primary care may be able to improve services for this group of people at the end of life.
A search of electronic databases of English language papers published in peer-reviewed journals, 2000–2011 inclusive was undertaken using broad terms related to palliative care and dementia. 6167 papers were identified. Titles and abstracts were read. Papers were included if they were literature reviews of palliative or end of life care for people with dementia/Parkinson's disease/Lewy body dementia/cognitive impairment/Alzheimer's disease or any other cognitive impairment, in any setting (hospital, care home, community) and covering people of all ages. Papers were excluded if they covered palliative care focusing on other conditions, or were about an aspect of dementia care and treatment not related to palliative care.
Our critical synthesis generated five main themes from this review of the reviews: (1) carers’ (family caregivers’) experiences; (2) person-centred care; (3) practice (including advance care planning, pain and comfort, nutrition, medical complications and minimizing the distress of behavioural symptoms); (4) system factors, including ethical dilemmas, decision making, information, and training; and (5) research priorities. There appears to be good evidence on the care and management of patients with dementia at the end of life which can be used to influence policy development and emerging specificity about research priorities in palliative care practice for people with dementia.
Enhancing self-efficacy is central to programmes promoting self-care and self-management. However, little is known about older people's self-efficacy in doctor–patient interactions. This paper investigates lifestyle, medical and demographic factors associated with self-efficacy in doctor–patient interactions in older people in general practice.
A cross-sectional analysis of data from a randomised controlled trial of older people was conducted in a health risk appraisal study in London. Self-efficacy was measured using the Perceived Efficacy in Patient–Physician Interactions Questionnaire.
Older people with higher self-efficacy were significantly more likely to report having had recent preventive care measures such as recent blood pressure measurement and influenza immunisation. Women were less likely to have higher self-efficacy than men. Older people were significantly less likely to have high self-efficacy if they reported having poor memory, low mood, limited activities due to fear of falling, basic education, difficulties with at least one activity of daily living, reduced physical activity, living alone, or risk of social isolation.
A third of people had low self-efficacy in doctor–patient interactions. They appear to be a vulnerable group. Low self-efficacy in interactions with doctors may be a symptom or a characteristic of older people who experience social isolation and depression. Policies that depend on enhancing self-care and self-management need to consider the large number of older people with low self-efficacy in using medical services, and understanding characteristics in older people associated with lower confidence in doctor–patient interactions may be useful in clinical practice and research.
Early intervention can help to reduce the burden of disability in the older population, but many do not access preventive care. There is uncertainty over what factors influence case finding in older patients in general practice.
To explore factors associated with case finding for hypertension, hyperlipidaemia and diabetes mellitus in older patients.
Two thousand four hundred and ninety-one patients aged 65 years and above were recruited from three large practices in suburban London before the introduction of the Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF) completed a questionnaire on health, functional status, health behaviours and preventive care.
Those not reporting heart disease, diabetes or hypertension were included in a secondary data analysis to explore factors influencing uptake of preventive care measures. Approximately one-third denied having had a blood pressure check in the previous year. They were more likely to have had little contact with doctors and to have an unhealthy lifestyle (smoking and a high-fat diet). One-third reported a cholesterol test in the previous five years. Cholesterol measurement was reported more often by men and those with a high body mass index. Those with unhealthy lifestyles (smoking and high-fat diet), those who had only received the state pension and those who limited their activities because of a fear of falling were less likely to report cholesterol measurement. About 10% reported a fasting blood glucose measurement and were more likely to consult more often and have more medications, but they were less likely to have a high-fat diet. Preventive care uptake was associated with frequent contacts with doctors, but overall the uptake of preventive care was low. Older people with healthier lifestyles were more likely to have primary preventative care interventions. These findings provide a baseline against which the effect of the QOF on the care of older people can be measured in future studies.
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