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Hospitalizations among skilled nursing facility (SNF) residents in Detroit increased in mid-March 2020 due to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Outbreak response teams were deployed from local healthcare systems, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the Detroit Health Department (DHD) to understand the infection prevention and control (IPC) gaps in SNFs that may have accelerated the outbreak.
We conducted 2 point-prevalence surveys (PPS-1 and PPS-2) at 13 Detroit SNFs from April 8 to May 8, 2020. The DHD and partners conducted facility-wide severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) testing of all residents and staff and collected information regarding resident cohorting, staff cohorting, and personnel protective equipment (PPE) utilized during that time.
Resident cohorting had been implemented in 7 of 13 (58.3%) SNFs prior to point-prevalence survey 1 (PPS-1), and other facilities initiated cohorting after obtaining PPS-1 results. Cohorting protocols of healthcare practitioners and environmental service staff were not established in 4 (31%) of 13 facilities, and in 3 facilities (23.1%) the ancillary staff were not assigned to cohorts. Also, 2 SNFs (15%) had an observation unit prior to PPS-1, 2 (15%) had an observation unit after PPS-1, 4 (31%) could not establish an observation unit due to inadequate space, and 5 (38.4%) created an observation unit after PPS-2.
On-site consultations identified gaps in IPC knowledge and cohorting that may have contributed to ongoing transmission of SARS-CoV-2 among SNF residents despite aggressive testing measures. Infection preventionists (IPs) are critical in guiding ongoing IPC practices in SNFs to reduce spread of COVID-19 through response and prevention.
Antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) are effective in developed countries. In this study, we assessed the effectiveness of an infectious disease (ID) physician–driven post-prescription review and feedback as an ASP strategy in India, a low middle-income country (LMIC).
Design and setting:
This prospective cohort study was carried out for 18 months in 2 intensive care units of a tertiary-care hospital, consisting of 3 phases: baseline, intervention, and follow up. Each phase spanned 6 months.
Patients aged ≥15 years receiving 48 hours of study antibiotics were recruited for the study.
During the intervention phase, an ID physician reviewed the included cases and gave alternate recommendations if the antibiotic use was inappropriate. Acceptance of the recommendations was measured after 48 hours. The primary outcome of the study was days of therapy (DOT) per 1,000 study patient days (PD).
Overall, 401 patients were recruited in the baseline phase, 381 patients were recruited in the intervention phase, and 379 patients were recruited in the follow-up phase. Antimicrobial use decreased from 831.5 during the baseline phase to 717 DOT per 1,000 PD in the intervention phase (P < .0001). The effect was sustained in the follow-up phase (713.6 DOT per 1,000 PD). De-escalation according to culture susceptibility improved significantly in the intervention phase versus the baseline phase (42.7% vs 23.6%; P < .0001). Overall, 73.3% of antibiotic prescriptions were inappropriate. Recommendations by the ID team were accepted in 60.7% of the cases.
The ID physician–driven implementation of an ASP was successful in reducing antibiotic utilization in an acute-care setting in India.
Application of the new 2015 NHSN definition of catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) in intensive care units reduced CAUTI rates by ~50%, primarily due to exclusion of candiduria. This significant reduction in CAUTI rates resulting from the changes in the definition must be considered when evaluating effectiveness of CAUTI prevention programs.
Nosocomial outbreaks caused by Salmonella are rare. We describe the investigation and control of a cluster of novel extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) Salmonella enterica serotype Isangi in a hospital in southeastern Michigan.
An epidemiologic investigation, including case-control study, assessment of infection control practices and environmental cultures, was performed to identify modes of transmission. Healthcare workers (HCWs) exposed to case patients were screened. Strain relatedness was determined using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE); ESBL confirmation was conducted using real-time PCR. Control measures were implemented to prevent further transmission.
Between September 2 and October 22, 2015, 19 surgical patients, including 10 organ transplant recipients and 1 HCW, had positive S. Isangi cultures. Of these case patients and HCW, 13 had gastroenteritis, 2 had bacteremia, 1 had surgical-site infection, and 4 were asymptomatic. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) showed 89.5% similarity among the isolates in these cases. Isolates with resistant-phenotypes possessed plasmid-mediated CTX-M15 ESBL. A total of 19 case patients were compared with 57 control participants. Case patients had significantly higher odds of exposure to an intraoperative transesophageal (TEE) probe (adjusted odds ratio 9.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.12–72.60; P=.02). Possible cross-transmission occurred in the HCW and 2 patients. Cultures of TEE probes and the environment were negative. The outbreak ended after removal of TEE probes, modification of reprocessing procedures, implementation of strict infection control practices, and enhanced environmental cleaning.
We report the first nosocomial ESBL S. Isangi outbreak in the United States. Multiple control measures were necessary to interrupt transmission of this gastrointestinal pathogen. Exposure to possibly contaminated TEE probes was associated with transmission. Periodic monitoring of reprocessing procedures of TEE probes may be required to ensure optimal disinfection.
We assessed for vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) precursor organisms in southeastern Michigan, an area known to have VRSA. The prevalence was 2.5% (pSK41-positive methicillin-resistant S. aureus, 2009–2011) and 1.5% (Inc18-positive vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, 2006–2013); Inc18 prevalence significantly decreased after 2009 (3.7% to 0.82%). Risk factors for pSK41 included intravenous vancomycin exposure.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2014;35(12):1531–1534
Of the 13 US vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) cases, 8 were identified in southeastern Michigan, primarily in patients with chronic lower-extremity wounds. VRSA infections develop when the vanA gene from vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE) transfers to S. aureus. Incl8-like plasmids in VRE and pSK41-like plasmids in S. aureus appear to be important precursors to this transfer.
Identify the prevalence of VRSA precursor organisms.
Prospective cohort with embedded case-control study.
Southeastern Michigan adults with chronic lower-extremity wounds.
Adults presenting to 3 southeastern Michigan medical centers during the period February 15 through March 4, 2011, with chronic lower-extremity wounds had wound, nares, and perirectal swab specimens cultured for S. aureus and VRE, which were tested for pSK41-like and Incl8-like plasmids by polymerase chain reaction. We interviewed participants and reviewed clinical records. Risk factors for pSK41-positive S. aureus were assessed among all study participants (cohort analysis) and among only S. aureus-colonized participants (case-control analysis).
Of 179 participants with wound cultures, 26% were colonized with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus, 27% were colonized with methicillin-resistant S. aureus, and 4% were colonized with VRE, although only 17% consented to perirectal culture. Six participants (3%) had pSK41-positive S. aureus, and none had Incl8-positive VRE. Having chronic wounds for over 2 years was associated with pSK41-positive S. aureus colonization in both analyses.
Colonization with VRSA precursor organisms was rare. Having long-standing chronic wounds was a risk factor for pSK41-positive S. aureus colonization. Additional investigation into the prevalence of VRSA precursors among a larger cohort of patients is warranted.
After the January 12, 2010, earthquake in Haiti, Project Medishare and the University of Miami organized, built, and staffed a 200-bed field hospital (the University of Miami Hospital in Haiti [UMHH] ) on the outskirts of Port-au-Prince. We describe the operational challenges of providing a safe environment at the UMHH. Furthermore, we compared how these issues were addressed at this ad hoc hospital with how they were addressed at the field hospital of the Israel Defense Force, a fully deployable hospital with an organization fine-tuned as a result of prior disaster situations, also in Haiti.
Hospital-acquired Legionella pneumonia has a fatality rate of 28%, and the source is the water distribution system. Two prevention strategies have been advocated. One approach to prevention is clinical surveillance for disease without routine environmental monitoring. Another approach recommends environmental monitoring even in the absence of known cases of Legionella pneumonia. We determined the Legionella colonization status of water systems in hospitals to establish whether the results of environmental surveillance correlated with discovery of disease. None of these hospitals had previously experienced endemic hospital-acquired Legionella pneumonia.
Twenty US hospitals in 13 states.
Hospitals performed clinical and environmental surveillance for Legionella from 2000 through 2002. All specimens were shipped to the Special Pathogens Laboratory at the Veterans Affairs Pittsburgh Medical Center.
Legionella pneumophila and Legionella anisa were isolated from 14 (70%) of 20 hospital water systems. Of 676 environmental samples, 198 (29%) were positive for Legionella species. High-level colonization of the water system (30% or more of the distal outlets were positive for L. pneumophila) was demonstrated for 6 (43%) of the 14 hospitals with positive findings. L. pneumophila serogroup 1 was detected in 5 of these 6 hospitals, whereas 1 hospital was colonized with L. pneumophila serogroup 5. A total of 633 patients were evaluated for Legionella pneumonia from 12 (60%) of the 20 hospitals: 377 by urinary antigen testing and 577 by sputum culture. Hospital-acquired Legionella pneumonia was identified in 4 hospitals, all of which were hospitals with L. pneumophila serogroup 1 found in 30% or more of the distal outlets. No cases of disease due to other serogroups or species (L. anisa) were identified.
Environmental monitoring followed by clinical surveillance was successful in uncovering previously unrecognized cases of hospital-acquired Legionella pneumonia.
To evaluate the in vitro activity of antiseptics and detergents against Candida.
One strain each of Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida lusitaniae, Candida parapsilosis, Candida kefyr, Candida glabrata, and an American Type Culture Collection strain of Escherichia coli (control) were studied. Clinical isolates were obtained from patients in a bone marrow unit of a large tertiary hospital. Antiseptic and disinfectant agents studied were used in the hospital where isolates were identified for cleaning of inanimate surfaces or hand washing. In vitro susceptibility was determined using a broth macrodilution method with exposure times to antiseptic or disinfectant agent of 15 seconds to 4 minutes and concentrations of agents that ranged from undiluted to 1:10,000 dilution.
A 900-bed teaching hospital.
Of disinfectants tested, Vestal and Sparquat inhibited growth of all species at dilutions of ≤1:100 at all contact times for all species. Clorox showed inhibition of growth at 1:100 dilution after 30 seconds of contact time for all isolates. Of antiseptics studied, Hibiclens inhibited growth of all species except C tropicalis at dilutions of ≤1:100 at all contact times and for C tropicalis after 60 seconds. Clinidine inhibited growth of all species at dilutions of ≤1:100 at all contact times for all species with the exception of C glabrata and C tropicalis, which grew at the undiluted concentration. Ultradex failed to demonstrate killing of any species for any dilutions tested.
The results of this study show varying degrees of in vitro inhibition of growth by a variety of antiseptics and disinfectants against clinical isolates of Candida species from hospitalized patients.
To compare the epidemiology of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) in a longterm–care unit and an acute-care hospital.
Point-prevalence surveys for VRE rectal colonization of patients were carried out over a 21-month period in patients in a long-term–care unit and an acutecare hospital (medical ward and intensive-care units). The environment and hands of healthcare workers also were sampled for VRE. Contour-clamped homogeneous electric field (CHEF) electrophoresis was used to evaluate possible transmission among roommates and the relatedness of patient strains to those in the environment and on the hands of healthcare workers.
A 200-bed Veterans Affairs Medical Center with an attached 90-bed long-term–care unit.
From December 1994 to January 1996, rectal VRE colonization of patients in the long-term–care unit increased significantly from 9% to 22%. In contrast, patients on the medical ward rarely were colonized after the first survey in December 1994, and only two intensivecare–unit patients were found to be colonized during the four surveys. The environment was contaminated persistently in the long-term–care unit. In the four surveys, carriage of VRE on hands of healthcare workers varied from 13% to 41%; 65% of healthcare workers with VRE found on their hands worked in the long-term–care unit.
Seven different strains were identified by CHEF typing. Although the initial survey found only vanA strains, subsequent surveys showed vanB strains also were present.
Residents of a long-term–care unit frequently were colonized with VRE, but infections were uncommon in this population. The environment of the long-term–care unit was contaminated with VRE, and VRE was found frequently on the hands of healthcare workers in this unit. Both vanA and vanB genotypes were found in this setting.
Objective: To evaluate the epidemiology of, and control measures for, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) in a renal unit.
Design: A 3-month, prospective, prevalence culture survey of patients on a 24-bed renal unit.
Setting: A 975-bed community teaching hospital.
Patients: Patients admitted to the renal unit over a 3-month period. Patients identified with VRE were each matched with four patients without VRE isolated over the study period.
Interventions/Control Measures: Resistant-organism barrier precautions. To eradicate carriage of VRE, two patients with VRE stool colonization were treated with 5 days of oral doxycycline (100 mg twice per day) and rifampin (300 mg/day).
Results: Seven patients with VRE (8 isolates) were identified. Five isolates were Enterococcus faecium (vancomycin MIC=16 to 256 μg/mL), two were Enterococcus faecalis (MICs=16 and 124 μg/mL), and one was Enterococcus gallinarum (MIC=8.0 μg/mL). Eradication of carriage with VRE was accomplished in two patients treated with doxycycline and rifampin. In the final 30 days of the culture survey and at 9 months, there were no further patients with VRE identified.
Conclusions: Resistant-organism precautions and elimination of patient carriage may be useful measures for controlling the spread of low-prevalence endemic vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus.
After controlling an epidemic of vanB-type vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE), we contained a subsequent vanA E faecium outbreak by using prospective laboratory-based surveillance, placing patients with VRE in private rooms, requiring the use of both gowns and gloves by all personnel entering the patients' rooms, and conducting prevalence surveys of patients on affected wards.
Pathogenic Candida species are ubiquitous organisms usually confined to human and animal reservoirs, but they can be recovered from soil, food, and the hospital environment. They are normal inhabitants of the female genital tract and the gastrointestinal tract, including the oropharynx, rectum, and perineum. Candida species are increasingly important nosocomial pathogens in immunocompromised patients, as well as in intensive care and postoperative patients. The changing patterns and the increasing incidence of disseminated Candida infection has been demonstrated in large autopsy series1 and is related to the modem aggressive treatment of malignancy and intensive supportive care of hospitalized patients. Current therapeutic regimens have resulted in greater numbers of cancer patients achieving and maintaining remission despite more prolonged periods of neu-tropenia. Greater success in the treatment of bacterial and viral infections has resulted in longer patient survival and hence an increased susceptibility of developing severe Candida infections. Candida species are now the fourth most commonly recovered organism from blood cultures of hospitalized patients with a crude mortality for Candida albicans fungemia of approximately 80% to 85%.
We studied 157 episodes of infection or colonization with enterococci in 122 patients over a six-month period. One hundred twelve episodes (71.3%) occurred in patients over age 60 years. The most common sites for isolation of enterococci were the urinary tract, and bone and soft tissue. Nosocomial acquisition of enterococci occurred in 74.7% of all infections, and an additional 21% of episodes occurred in patients who had been transferred from another hospital or were regularly seen in the clinic. The overall mortality was 19.6%; 71.4% of those with bacteremia died. Enterococci appear to be significant pathogens, especially in older men in veterans' acute care hospitals and nursing home care units.
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