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Although Peru’s political system has long been depicted as a “democracy without parties,” several recent studies have suggested that Fujimorismo might posses the assets to become the sole Peruvian political party. In this chapter, we evaluate this proposition using the conceptual framework set out by volume’s editors. We find that Fujimorismo is a loose electoral coalition that, in vertical terms, lacks the stable social links required to aggregate interests. In horizontal terms, Fujimorismo can only coordinate politicians to a limited degree. Finally, our study suggests that even when Fujimorismo performs both horizontal and vertical functions, it is a party that has shown a tendency to use its organizational assets to erode democracy and not to strengthen it.
To describe the prevalence and determinants of gestational night blindness in pregnant women receiving care in a hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Cross-sectional study of pregnant and postpartum women receiving care in a public hospital in Rio de Janeiro from 1999 to 2001 (group I; n 225) or from 2005 to 2008 (group II; n 381). Night blindness was identified through a standardized and validated interview (WHO, 1996). The determinants of gestational night blindness were identified through a hierarchical logistic regression model.
Public maternity hospital in Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.
Adult pregnant and postpartum women (n 606), aged ≥20 years.
The prevalence of gestational night blindness was 9·9 %. The final model revealed that not living in the South Zone of Rio de Janeiro (distal level: adjusted OR=1·846; 95 % CI 1·002, 3·401), belonging to group I (intermediate level: adjusted OR=2·183; 95 % CI 1·066, 4·471) and for the proximal level, having a history of abortion (adjusted OR=2·840; 95 % CI 1·134, 7·115) and having anaemia during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy (adjusted OR=3·776; 95 % CI 1·579, 9·029) were determinants of gestational night blindness.
Gestational night blindness should be assessed for during the prenatal care of all pregnant women, especially those living in deprived areas of the city and/or who have a history of abortion or anaemia. Nutritional monitoring is recommended during pregnancy to control gestational night blindness.
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