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There are individual differences in rational thinking that are less than perfectly correlated with individual differences in intelligence because intelligence and rationality occupy different conceptual locations in models of cognition. A tripartite extension of currently popular dual-process theories is presented in this chapter that illustrates how intelligence and rationality are theoretically separate concepts. Thus, individual differences in the cognitive skills that underlie rational thinking must be studied in their own right because intelligence tests do not explicitly assess rational thinking. We close the chapter by describing our attempt to develop the first prototype of a comprehensive test of rational thought, the Comprehensive Assessment of Rational Thinking (CART). With the CART, we aim to draw more attention to the skills of rational thought by measuring them systematically and by examining the correlates of individual differences in these cognitive skills.
Cross-cultural studies from a large number of societies provide examples of practical intelligence manifested as practical know-how. A particular form of practical know-how that figures prominently in research on practical intelligence is tacit knowledge. Tacit knowledge is practical knowledge that usually is not openly expressed or taught directly. Although practical intelligence is related to performance in a variety of domains, studies in which both practical intelligence, primarily various measures of tacit knowledge, and IQ have been measured demonstrate that practical intelligence is distinct from fluid and crystallized intelligence. Sternberg has been the most forceful proponent of the concept of practical intelligence as one of three, distinct form of intelligence. Horn and Masunaga provide an account of the merging of a theory of intelligence with a theory of expertise. The increasingly influential alternative is embodied or grounded cognition.
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