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We present recent observation results of Sgr A* at millimeter obtained with VLBI arrays in Korea and Japan.
7 mm monitoring of Sgr A* is part of our AGN large project. The results at 7 epochs during 2013-2014, including high resolution maps, flux density and two-dimensional size measurements are presented. The source shows no significant variation in flux and structure related to the G2 encounter in 2014. According to recent MHD simulations by kawashima et al., flux and magnetic field energy can be expected to increase several years after the encounter; We will keep our monitoring in order to test this prediction.
Astrometric observations of Sgr A* were performed in 2015 at 7 and 3.5 millimeter simultaneously. Source-frequency phase referencing was applied and a combined ”core-shift” of Sgr A* and a nearby calibrator was measured. Future observations and analysis are necessary to determine the core-shift in each source.
The nearby radio galaxy M87 offers a unique opportunity for exploring the connection between γ-ray production and jet formation at an unprecedented linear resolution. However, the origin and location of the γ-rays in this source is still elusive. Based on previous radio/TeV correlation events, the unresolved jet base (radio core) and the peculiar knot HST-1 at >120 pc from the nucleus are proposed as candidate site(s) of γ-ray production. Here we report our intensive, high-resolution radio monitoring observations of the M87 jet with the VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry (VERA) and the European VLBI Network (EVN) from February 2011 to October 2012. During this period, an elevated level of the M87 flux is reported at TeV with VERITAS. We detected a remarkable flux increase in the radio core with VERA at 22/43 GHz coincident with the VHE activity. Meanwhile, HST-1 remained quiescent in terms of its flux density and structure at radio. These results strongly suggest that the TeV γ-ray activity in 2012 originates in the jet base within 0.03 pc (projected) from the central supermassive black hole.
We present VLBI maps of the 6.7 GHz methanol maser emission in 32 sources obtained using the Japanese VLBI Network (JVN) and the East-Asian VLBI Network (EAVN). All of the observed sources provide new VLBI maps, and the spatial morphologies have been classified into five categories similar to the results obtained from European VLBI Network observations (Bartkiewicz et al. 2009). The 32 methanol sources are being monitored to measure the relative proper motions of the methanol maser spots.
We present the internal proper motion of 6.7-GHz methanol masers in S269, an Ultra Compact HII region. The maser distribution in S269 consists of several maser groups, and the spatial structure of the main groups A and B are consistent with the past VLBI image. The remarkable result of comparing the two VLBI maps is that 6.7-GHz methanol maser distribution and velocity range within each group have been kept for eight years. Angular separation between the two groups A and B increases by 3.6 mas, which corresponds to a velocity of 11.5 km s−1.
We demonstrated electrical characteristics of operational amplifier (OPAMP) circuits fabricated by GaN/AlGaN/GaN HEMTs operating over 100 oC. GaN/AlGaN/GaN HEMTs, with the extremely low source resistance were fabricated by multiple ion implantation, precisely controlled ion-implanted (I/I) resistors and Schottky barrier diodes were integrated on the silicon substrate. The GaN cap layer on the AlGaN was grown to decrease the gate leakage current and current collapse for AlGaN/GaN HEMTs.
We investigated triple ion implanted 4H-SiC BJT with etched extrinsic base regions. To remove the defects induced by ion implantation between emitter and base regions, the characteristics of triple ion implanted 4H-SiC BJT were significantly improved. Maximum common current gain was improved from 1.7 to 7.5.
The alpha-2 adrenergic agonists clonidine and dexmedetomidine are used as an antihypertensive and a sedative, respectively. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of these agonists on ovalbumin-sensitized airway tone in guinea pigs.
The animals were divided into two groups: control and sensitized. The sensitized group received ovalbumin intraperitoneally and was boosted by exposure to aerosolized ovalbumin. The effects of the alpha-2 agonists were investigated by measuring (1) total lung resistance and (2) smooth muscle tension using a tracheal ring preparation.
In the control group, acetylcholine significantly increased total lung resistance in a dose-dependent manner. In the sensitized animals, total lung resistance was significantly higher (by 95%) at 6 μg kg−1 acetylcholine than that in the control group. Both clonidine and dexmedetomidine had a slight but significant inhibitory effect on the response curve of lung resistance at higher concentrations of carbachol, a potent muscarinic receptor agonist. Similar to the data obtained in the control group, both clonidine and dexmedetomidine significantly decreased total lung resistance and the inhibitory effects of these alpha-2 agonists on lung resistance were significantly distinguishable. Similar direct inhibitory effects of the alpha-2 agonists on carbachol-induced muscle contraction were observed in both the control and sensitized groups, the inhibitory effects in the sensitized group being significantly greater.
Both clonidine and dexmedetomidine can relax the airway even in the hyper-reactive state.
In this report, we have demonstrated enhancement-mode n-channel GaN MOSFETs on silicon (111) substrates. We observe a high field-effect mobility of 115 cm2/Vs, the best report for GaN MOSFET fabricated on a silicon substrate to our knowledge. The threshold voltage was estimated to be +2.7 V, and the maximum operation current was over 3.5 A. This value is the largest which have ever been reports.
Double ion implanted 4H-SiC bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) are fabricated by Al and N ion implantation to the base and emitter. The current gain of 3 is obtained at the base Al concentration of 1 × ∼ 1017 /cm3. The collector current as a function of the base Gummel number suggests that double ion implanted 4H-SiC BJT operates in the intrinsic region below the emitter in the low injection level. The high base resistance restricts the base current at VBE as low as 3 V.
Multiple ion-implanted GaN/AlGaN/GaN high electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) and preciously controlled ion-implanted resistors integrated on silicon substrate are reported. Using ion implantation into source/drain (S/D) regions, the performances were significantly improved. On-resistance reduced from 10.3 to 3.5 Ω•mm. Saturation drain current and maximum transconductance increased from 390 to 650 mA/mm and from 130 to 230 mS/mm. Measured transfer curve shows that I/O gain of 4.5 can be obtained at Vdd = 10 V.
We present VLBA observation towards the nucleus of a nearby radio galaxy NGC 1052. In NGC 1052, two-sided jet structure and a dense plasma circumnuclear torus with a radius of 0.7 pc have been found around the central mass. It emits a H2O megamaser, which is redshifted with respect to the systemic velocity of the galaxy (1491 kms−1) with a large velocity width of 100 kms−1 (FWHM). The maser gas is found at the inner jet components of both the approaching and receding jets. The maser gas is positionally coincident with a plasma torus. The maser gas in NGC 1052 could be explained as a circumnuclear torus or disk, as found for the nucleus of NGC 4258.
In this paper, we demonstrate that high temperature and short time EBAS annealing is effective to obtain low sheet resistance without surface roughening in heavily Al-implanted 4H-SiC (0001) samples (Al concentration: 1.0 × 1021 /cm3, thickness: 0.3 microns, total dose: 2.6 × 1016 /cm2). The sheet resistance and rms surface roughness of the sample annealed at 1800 °C for 0.5 min is estimated to be 4.8k ohm/sq. and 0.82 nm, respectively. Also, we discuss the advantage of EBAS annealing for the suppression of surface roughening during annealing.
Hydrothermal lead zirconate titanate (Pb(Zr,Ti)O3: PZT) films with a thick of about 10 μm on both a Ti foil and a Ti layer sputtered stainless steel (SS) foil were obtained. Both PZT films showed same morphology and crystalinity. After repeating the hydrothermal process, the films were formed to cantilever shape. A tip displacement measurement of the cantilevers was carried out in order to estimate transverse piezoelectric constant (d31). The obtained d31 value of the PZT films on Ti sputtered SS foils is -29 pm/V, which is larger than that on Ti foil (-24 pm/V). Amorphous layer consist of Pb and Ti was observed at the interfaces between the both PZT film and the Ti metals. The thickness of the layer for PZT film on Ti foil (350 nm) is thicker than that for PZT film on SS foil (200 nm). The relative permittivity of the layer is estimated to be small compared with that of PZT. Accordingly, the effective electric field for PZT layer is decreased. The deference of d31 values between the obtained PZT films is thought to be attributed to the thickness of amorphous layer.
Background and objectives: Sodium bicarbonate is the most physiological alkalinizing agent. The effect of a new bicarbonated Ringer's solution (BRS) containing Mg2+, on metabolic acidosis and serum magnesium abnormality were evaluated and compared with those of acetated Ringer's (ARS), lactated Ringer's (LRS) and Ringer's (RS) solutions in an experimental haemorrhagic shock model with dogs. Methods: Animals were randomly divided into six groups (n = 6 in each group), a sham-operated group, an operated group without infusion, and 4 operated groups with infusion (BRS, ARS, LRS and RS groups). Each RS was intravenously administered at 60 mL kg−1 h−1 for 1.5 h. Arterial blood gases, plasma electrolytes and cardiovascular parameters were analysed. Results: BRS significantly improved blood base excess values, which were decreased by blood-letting, faster and more markedly than did LRS and RS (BRS −6.3 ± 0.5 mEq L−1; LRS −9.2 ± 1.1 mEq L−1; RS −12.4 ± 1.0 mEq L−1 at the end of infusion). The alkalinizing effect of BRS tended to be better than that of ARS but not significantly so. The serum Mg2+ concentration was well-maintained by BRS as compared to other RS (BRS 1.5 ± 0.0 mg dL−1; ARS 1.2 ± 0.0 mg dL−1; LRS 1.1 ± 0.0 mg dL−1; RS 1.3 ± 0.1 mg dL−1, at the end of infusion). Conclusions: These results suggest that BRS is a suitable perioperative solution for metabolic acidosis and serum electrolyte balance among RS tested.
Background and objective: The effects of bicarbonated Ringer's solution were evaluated and compared with those of acetated Ringer's, lactated Ringer's and Ringer's solutions in partially hepatectomized rabbits. Method: Animals were randomly divided into six groups (n = 6 in each group): a sham-operated group, an operated group without infusion, and four operated groups with infusions of each of the four Ringer's solutions. Each Ringer's solution was intravenously administered at 40 mL kg−1 h−1 for 1.5 h. Arterial blood gases, plasma magnesium concentrations and cardiovascular parameters were analysed. Results: The partial hepatectomy-induced decrement of base excess was inhibited by bicarbonated Ringer's solution more remarkably than by either lactated or plain solutions (P < 0.01). The alkalinizing effect of bicarbonated Ringer's solution tended to be more marked than that of the acetated solution but not significantly so. Plasma magnesium concentrations were well maintained by bicarbonated solution as compared to the other solutions (P < 0.01). Conclusions: These results suggest that bicarbonated Ringer's solution is the most suitable perioperative solution for metabolic acidosis and plasma electrolyte balance among the Ringer's solutions tested.
Incorporation of Si ion implantation to GaN metal semiconductor field effect transistor (MESFET) processing has been demonstrated. The channel and source/drain regions formed using Si ion implantation into undoped GaN on sapphire substrate. In comparison with the conventional devices without ion implanted source/drain structures, the ion implanted devices showed excellent device performance. On-state resistance reduces from 210 Ω-mm to 105 Ω-mm. Saturation drain current and maximum transconductance increase from 36 mA/mm to 78 mA/mm and from 3.8 mS/mm to 10 mS/mm, respectively.
Ti/Al ohmic contact with an extremely low specific contact resistance has been formed by the deposition of Ti and Al films on Si+ lanted GaN. The ohmic contact formed by annealing at 600 o C of Ti film with a thickness of 50 nm and Al film with a thickness of 200 nm reveals the good smooth surface and uniform structure as compare to those of contacts formed above 700 °C, which is correlated to whether the Al-Ti alloy is melted during the annealing of ohmic contact or not. The specific contact resistance of 2 × 10-6Ω-cm2 is obtained for Si+ implanted GaN with a dose of 5 × 1013 cm-2. As Si ion dose increases to 5 × 1014 /cm2, the specific contact resistance is reduced to 2 × 10-8 Ω-cm2. It is revealed that the selective doping at high impurity concentration in the surface region by Si+ implantation is useful to reduce the contact resistance for Ti/Al contact to GaN.