To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Treatment Resistant-Depression (TRD), known as the failure to respond to at least two different adequate trials of antidepressant treatments (ADT) in the current episode, is a relatively frequent clinical condition, associated to a high number of relapses, hospitalizations, and an elevated use of multiple pharmacological treatments. To date, however, the association between clinical variables and non-response in TRD remains unclear.
To identify predictors of non-response in inpatients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and TRD.
To investigate clinical variables as potential predictors of non-response in TRD.
Two hundred fifty-three inpatients with MDD and TRD were divided into two groups: responders and non-responders to drug therapies, according to a decrease of 50% or more of the severity of depression (measured with HAM-D 17 items) at the end of forth week of hospitalization. A general model of Cox regression (with backward stepwise method) was used to identify independent predictors of non-response to treatment.
One hundred fifty-four TRD inpatients were responders and 99 non-responders. Cox regression identified three independent clinical predictors independently associated with the group of non-responders: (1) the presence of 5 or more depressive episodes in the medical history (OR = 2.27); (2) a current comorbid anxiety disorder (OR = 1.85); (3) a history of early life adversities (ELAs) (OR = 1.60).
The findings of this study suggest that the phenomenon of non-pharmacological response in the TRD is associated with different clinical variables, which might act through separate mechanisms in determining the persistence of depressive symptomatology.
The Mismatch Negativity (MMN) is an event-related potential (ERP) sensitive to early auditory deviance detection and has been shown to be reduced in patients with schizophrenia. Moreover, MMN amplitude reduction to duration deviant tones was found to be related to functional outcomes particularly, to social cognition and real-life functioning.
In the context of a multicentre study of the Italian Network for Research on Psychoses, our study focused on the investigation of early auditory discrimination components in relation to functioning in real-life in patients with schizophrenia.
ERPs were recorded in 64 chronic, stabilized patients with schizophrenia during the presentation of standard, duration deviants and frequency deviants tones while watching a cartoon. The Specific Level of Functioning (SLOF) scale was used to measure real-life functioning. Psychopathology, neurocognition and social cognition were measured by state of art instruments. Regression analyses were carried out using SLOF domains as dependent variables and MMN, psychopathology, neurocognition, extrapyramidal symptoms and social cognition as independent predictors.
Latency of MMN entered the regression equation only for the SLOF domain of common activities explaining less variance than social cognition and positive symptoms.
In stabilized patients with schizophrenia pre-attentive deficits, as indexed by MMN and P3a amplitude reduction, do not show any association with psychopathology or functioning. Latency of MMN was an independent predictor of some aspects of functioning with a smaller effect than social cognition and psychopathology domains.
P300 is an event-related potential (ERP) thought to reflect attention, working memory and context integration and has been shown to be consistently reduced in patients with Schizophrenia. Despite a possible relation between P300 components and cognitive deficits in Schizophrenia has been hypothesized, few studies addressed this hypothesis.
In the context of a multicenter study of the Italian Network for Research on Psychoses, our study focused on the investigation of auditory P300 component in relation to clinical and cognitive domains in patients with Schizophrenia.
ERPs were recorded in 64 chronic, stabilized patients with Schizophrenia during a standard oddball task. N1 and P3b latency and amplitude were assessed at Fz and Pz, respectively. State of art instruments was used for clinical assessment. Cognitive indices (from the seven cognitive domains of the Measurement and Treatment of Cognition in Schizophrenia, MATRICS) were expressed as Z-scores from an Italian normative sample.
Correlation analysis revealed associations of P3b latency with age, education, PANSS-DIS, processing speed, working memory, St. Hans parkinsonism subscale. In a multiple linear regression model, processing speed was an independent significant predictor of P3b latency.
For the first time, a strong relation between P3b latency and processing speed impairment was shown in Schizophrenia. Processing speed is considered a central factor in the relation between cognitive deficits and functional outcome in chronic schizophrenia. The association with P3b latency might shed lights in the neural basis of this complex construct.
QTc interval prolongation is considered a risk factor for fatal polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, which can result in sudden cardiac death. Most psychotropic drugs have a dose-dependent potential to prolong the QTc interval. However, other factors require appropriate consideration, including: age; gender; other medications; electrolyte abnormalities; severe comorbid conditions, such as co-occurring alcohol or substances abuse/dependence.
The objective was to study the potential mediating roles of alcohol/substances abuse on QTc prolongation.
The Italian research group STAR Network, in collaboration with the Young Italian Psychiatrists Association, aimed to evaluate the frequency of QTc interval prolongation in a sample of patients under treatment with psychotropic drugs through a cross-sectional national survey.
A sample of 2411 unselected patients were enrolled after performing an ECG during the recruitment period. Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were collected from medical records. Collected data underwent statistical analysis.
A total of 11.2% of patients reported alcohol abuse, and only 8.9% psychotropic substances. According to the threshold, less than 20% of patients had a borderline value of QTc, and 1% a pathological value. Patients with co-occurring alcohol misuse and drug abuse were more likely to have longer QTc interval.
The present study describes the frequency of QTc prolongation in real-world clinical practice. Before prescribing a psychotropic drug, the physician should carefully assess its risks and benefits to avoid this type of adverse reaction, particularly when additional risk factors are present. The potential role of alcohol and substances on QTc length could be particularly useful in emergency settings.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.