To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
To describe local experience in managing an outbreak of Candida auris in a tertiary-care setting.
In response to emerging Candida auris, an outbreak investigation was conducted at our hospital between March 2018 and June 2019. Once a patient was confirmed to have Candida auris, screening of exposed patients and healthcare workers (HCWs) was conducted. Postexposure screening included those who had had direct contact with or shared the same unit or ward with a laboratory-confirmed case. In response to the increasing number of cases, new infection control measures were implemented.
In total, 23 primary patients were detected over 15 months. Postexposure screening identified 11 more cases, and all were patients. Furthermore, ~28.6% of patients probably caught infection in another hospital or in the community. Infection control measures were strictly implemented including hand hygiene, personal protective equipment, patient hygiene, environmental cleaning, cohorting of patients and HCWs, and avoiding the sharing of equipment. The wave reached a peak in April 2019, followed by a sharp decrease in May 2019 and complete clearance in June 2019. The case patients were equally distributed between intensive care units (51.4%) and wards (48.6%). More infections (62.9%) occurred than colonizations (37.1%). Urinary tract infection (42.9%) and candidemia (17.1%) were the main infections. In total, 7 patients (20.0%) died during hospitalization; among them, 6 (17.1%) died within 30 days of diagnosis.
Active screening of exposed patients followed by strict infection control measures, including environmental cleaning, was successful in ending the outbreak. Preventing future outbreaks is challenging due to outside sources of infection and environmental resistance.
Introduction: Patients with poorly-controlled diabetes often visit the emergency department (ED) for treatment of hyperglycemia. While previous qualitative studies have examined the patient experience of diabetes as a chronic illness, there are no studies describing patients’ perceptions of ED care for hyperglycemia. The objective of this study was to explore the patient experience regarding ED hyperglycemia visits, and to characterize perceived barriers to adequate glycemic control post-discharge. Methods: This study was conducted at a tertiary care academic centre in London, Ontario. A qualitative constructivist grounded theory methodology was used to understand the experience of adult patient partners who have had an ED hyperglycemia visit. Patient partners, purposively sampled to capture a breadth of age, sex, disease and presentation frequency were invited to participate in a semi-structured individual interview to probe their experiences. Sampling continued until a theoretical framework representing key experiences and expectations reached sufficiency. Data were collected and analyzed iteratively using a constant comparative approach. Results: 22 patients with type 1 or 2 diabetes were interviewed. Participants sought care in the ED over other options because of their concern of having a potentially life-threatening condition, advice from a healthcare provider or family member, or a perceived lack of convenient alternatives to the ED based on time and location. Participants’ care expectations centred around symptom relief, glycemic control, reassurance and education, and seeking referral to specialist diabetes care post-discharge. Finally, perceived system barriers that challenged participants’ glycemic control included affordability of medical supplies and medications, access to follow-up and, in some cases, the transition from pediatric to adult diabetes care. Conclusion: Patients with diabetes utilize the ED for a variety of urgent and emergent hyperglycemic concerns. In addition to providing excellent medical treatment, ED healthcare providers should consider patients’ expectations when caring for those presenting with hyperglycemia. Future studies will focus on developing strategies to help patients navigate some of the barriers that exist within our current limited healthcare system, enhance follow-up care, and improve short- and long-term health outcomes.
Optimizing the dietary calcium (Ca) level is essential to maximize the eggshell quality, egg production and bone formation in poultry. This study aimed to establish the Ca requirements of egg-type duck breeders from 23 to 57 weeks of age on egg production, eggshell, incubation, tibial, plasma and ovary-related indices, as well as the expression of matrix protein-related genes. Totally, 450 Longyan duck breeders aged 21 weeks of age were allotted randomly into five treatments, each with six replicates of 15 individually caged birds. The data collection started from 23 weeks of age and continued over the following 35 weeks. The five groups corresponded to five dietary treatments containing either 2.8%, 3.2%, 3.6%, 4.0% or 4.4% Ca. The tested dietary Ca levels increased (linear, P <0.01) egg production and egg mass, and linearly improved (P <0.01) the feed conversion ratio (FCR). Increasing the dietary Ca levels from 2.8% to 4.4% increased (P <0.01) the eggshell thickness and eggshell content. The tested Ca levels showed a quadratic effect on eggshell thickness and ovarian weight (P <0.01); the highest values were obtained with the Ca levels 4.0% and 3.6%, respectively. Dietary Ca levels affected the small yellow follicles (SYF) number and SYF weight/ovarian weight, and the linear response (P <0.01) was significant vis-à-vis SYF number. In addition, dietary Ca levels increased (P <0.05) the tibial dry weight, breaking strength, mineral density and ash content. Plasma and tibial phosphorus concentration exhibited a quadratic (P <0.01) response to dietary Ca levels. Plasma calcitonin concentration linearly (P <0.01) increased as dietary Ca levels increased. The relative expression of carbonic anhydrase 2 in the uterus rose (P <0.01) with the increment of dietary Ca levels, and the highest value was obtained with 3.2% Ca. In conclusion, Longyan duck breeders fed a diet with 4.0% Ca had superior eggshell and tibial quality, while those fed a diet with 3.6% Ca had the heaviest ovarian weights. The regression model indicated that the dietary Ca levels 3.86%, 3.48% and 4.00% are optimal levels to obtain maximum eggshell thickness, ovarian weight and tibial mineral density, respectively.
Introduction: Hyperglycemic emergencies, including diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS), often recur in patients who have poorly controlled diabetes. Identification of those at risk for recurrent hyperglycemia visits may improve health care delivery and reduce ED utilization for these patients. The objective of this study was to prospectively characterize patients re-presenting to the emergency department (ED) for hyperglycemia within 30 days of an initial ED visit. Methods: This is a prospective cohort study of patients ≥18 years presenting to two tertiary care EDs (combined annual census 150,000 visits) with a discharge diagnosis of hyperglycemia, DKA or HHS from Jul 2016-Nov 2018. Trained research personnel collected data from medical records, telephoned patients at 10-14 days after the ED visit for follow-up, and completed an electronic review to determine if patients had a recurrent hyperglycemia visit to any of 11 EDs within our local health integration network within 30 days of the initial visit. Descriptive statistics were used where appropriate to summarize the data. Results: 240 patients were enrolled with a mean (SD) age of 53.9 (18.6) years and 126 (52.5%) were male. 77 (32.1%) patients were admitted from their initial ED visit. Of the 237 patients (98.8%) with 30-day data available, 55 (23.2%) had a recurrent ED visit for hyperglycemia within this time period. 21 (8.9%) were admitted on this subsequent visit, with one admission to intensive care and one death within 30 days. For all patients who had a recurrent 30-day hyperglycemia visit, 22/55 (40.0%) reported having outpatient follow-up with a physician for diabetes management within 10-14 days of their index ED visit. 7/21 (33.3%) patients who were admitted on the subsequent visit had received follow-up within the same 10-14 day period. Conclusion: This prospective study builds on our previous retrospective work and describes patients who present recurrently for hyperglycemia within 30 days of an index ED visit. Further research will attempt to determine if access to prompt follow-up after discharge can reduce recurrent hyperglycemia visits in patients presenting to the ED.
Sodium and chloride are the key factors maintaining normal osmotic pressure (OSM) and volume of the extracellular fluid, and influencing the acid–base balance of body fluids. The experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary Na+ and Cl− level on growth performance, excreta moisture, blood biochemical parameters, intestinal Na+–glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1) messenger RNA (mRNA), and Na+–H+ exchanger 2 (NHE2) mRNA, and to estimate the optimal dietary sodium and chlorine level for yellow-feathered chickens from 22 to 42days. A total of 900 22-day-old Lingnan yellow-feathered male chickens were randomly allotted to five treatments, each of which included six replicates of 30 chickens per floor pen. The basal control diet was based on corn and soybean meal (without added NaCl and NaHCO3). Treatments 2 to 5 consisted of the basal diet supplemented with equal weights of Na+ and Cl−, constituting 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3% and 0.4% of the diets. Supplemental dietary Na+ and Cl− improved the growth performance (P<0.05). Average daily gain (ADG) showed a quadratic broken-line regression to increasing dietary Na+ and Cl− (R2=0.979, P<0.001), and reached a plateau at 0.1%. Supplemental Na+ and Cl− increased (P<0.05) serum Na+ and OSM in serum and showed a quadratic broken-line regression (R2=0.997, P=0.004) at 0.11%. However, supplemental Na+ and Cl− decreased (P<0.05) serum levels of K+, glucose (GLU) and triglyceride. Higher levels of Na+and Cl− decreased duodenal NHE2 transcripts (P<0.05), but had no effect on ileal SGLT1 transcripts. The activity of Na+ /K+-ATPase in the duodenum decreased (P<0.05) with higher levels of dietary Na+ and Cl−. In conclusion, the optimal dietary Na+ and Cl− requirements for yellow-feathered chickens in the grower phase, from 22 to 42 days of age, to optimize ADG, serum Na+, OSM, K+ and GLU were 0.10%, 0.11%, 0.11%,0.17% and 0.16%, respectively, by regression analysis.
This article examines the impact of the 2012 drought and the biofuels mandate on the U.S. grain and livestock markets and estimates the mandate waiver required to offset the impact on the corn price. The framework used is a stochastic equilibrium displacement model that integrates the beef, pork, and poultry markets with the corn, distillers’ grain, soybean, soymeal, and ethanol markets. The corn and beef markets are found to be the most vulnerable. A mandate waiver of approximately 23% is required to fully negate the impact of the drought on corn prices. The waiver is equivalent to a 13.7% reduction in ethanol consumption.
We investigated an outbreak of 396 Salmonella enterica serotype I 4,5,12:i:- infections to determine the source. After 7 weeks of extensive hypothesis-generation interviews, no refined hypothesis was formed. Nevertheless, a case-control study was initiated. Subsequently, an iterative hypothesis-generation approach used by a single interviewing team identified brand A not-ready-to-eat frozen pot pies as a likely vehicle. The case-control study, modified to assess this new hypothesis, along with product testing indicated that the turkey variety of pot pies was responsible. Review of product labels identified inconsistent language regarding preparation, and the cooking instructions included undefined microwave wattage categories. Surveys found that most patients did not follow the product's cooking instructions and did not know their oven's wattage. The manufacturer voluntarily recalled pot pies and improved the product's cooking instructions. This investigation highlights the value of careful hypothesis-generation and the risks posed by frozen not-ready-to-eat microwavable foods.
This table shows the employment of Jordanians across industrial, educational, and occupational groups as a percentage of total employment in 2003. Note that the three major industries (in order) are public administration/social services; trade, including hotels and restaurants; and manufacturing. Almost 50 percent of Jordanian workers had less than a secondary education, and almost 50 percent of all employees fell into three occupational groups: service, shop, and market sales; craft and related trades; and elementary occupations.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.