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Global challenges ranging from climate change and ecological regime shifts to refugee crises and post-national territorial claims are rapidly moving ecosystem thresholds and altering the social fabric of societies worldwide. This book addresses the vital question of how to navigate the contested forces of stability and change in a world shaped by multiple interconnected global challenges. It proposes that senses of place is a vital concept for supporting individual and social processes for navigating these contested forces and encourages scholars to rethink how to theorise and conceptualise changes in senses of place in the face of global challenges. It also makes the case that our concepts of sense of place need to be revisited, given that our experiences of place are changing. This book is essential reading for those seeking a new understanding of the multiple and shifting experiences of place.
To explore and provide contextual meaning around issues surrounding food insecurity, namely, factors influencing food access, as one domain of food security.
A community-based, qualitative inquiry using semi-structured face-to-face interviews was conducted as part of a larger sequential mixed-methods study.
Cayo District, Belize, May 2019-August 2019.
Thirty English-speaking individuals (8 males, 22 females) between the ages of 18-70, with varying family composition residing within the Cayo District.
Participants describe a complex interconnectedness between family- and individual-level barriers to food access. Specifically, family composition, income, education, and employment influence individuals’ ability to afford and access food for themselves or their families. Participants also cite challenges with transportation and distance to food sources and educational opportunities as barriers to accessing food.
These findings provide insight around food security and food access barriers in a middle-income country and provide avenues for further study and potential interventions. Increased and sustained investment in primary and secondary education, including programs to support enrollment, should be a priority to decreasing food insecurity. Attention to building public infrastructure may also ease burdens around accessing foods.
Mobile robotic systems are used in a wide range of applications. Especially in the assistive field, they can enhance the mobility of the elderly and disable people. Modern robotic technologies have been implemented in wheelchairs to give them intelligence. Thus, by equipping wheelchairs with intelligent algorithms, controllers, and sensors, it is possible to share the wheelchair control between the user and the autonomous system. The present research proposes a methodology for intelligent wheelchairs based on head movements and vector fields. In this work, the user indicates where to go, and the system performs obstacle avoidance and planning. The focus is developing an assistive technology for people with quadriplegia that presents partial movements, such as the shoulder and neck musculature. The developed system uses shared control of velocity. It employs a depth camera to recognize obstacles in the environment and an inertial measurement unit (IMU) sensor to recognize the desired movement pattern measuring the user’s head inclination. The proposed methodology computes a repulsive vector field and works to increase maneuverability and safety. Thus, global localization and mapping are unnecessary. The results were evaluated by simulated models and practical tests using a Pioneer-P3DX differential robot to show the system’s applicability.
Research into the relationship between ecosystem services and human well-being, including poverty alleviation, has blossomed. However, little is known about who has produced this knowledge, what collaborative patterns and institutional and funding conditions have underpinned it, or what implications these matters may have. To investigate the potential implications of such production for conservation science and practice, we address this by developing a social network analysis of the most prolific writers in the production of knowledge about ecosystem services and poverty alleviation. We show that 70% of these authors are men, most are trained in either the biological sciences or economics and almost none in the humanities. Eighty per cent of authors obtained their PhD from universities in the EU or the USA, and they are currently employed in these regions. The co-authorship network is strongly collaborative, without dominant authors, and with the top 30 most cited scholars being based in the USA and co-authoring frequently. These findings suggest, firstly, that the production of knowledge on ecosystem services and poverty alleviation research has the same geographical and gender biases that characterize knowledge production in other scientific areas and, secondly, that there is an expertise bias that also characterizes other environmental matters. This is despite the fact that the research field of ecosystem services and poverty alleviation, by its nature, requires a multidisciplinary lens. This could be overcome through promoting more extensive collaboration and knowledge co-production.
Weedy rice (WR) (Oryza sativa L.) is the most troublesome weed infesting rice paddies in Brazil. Several changes have occurred in this region regarding crop management, especially WR control based on the Clearfield™ (CL) Rice Production System launched in 2003. This survey’s objective was to evaluate the WR infestation status by assessing the producers’ perception and the management practices used in southern Brazil after eighteen years of CL use in Brazil. Rice consultants and extension agents distributed a questionnaire with 213 producers in the Rio Grande do Sul (RS) and Santa Catarina (SC) state in the 2018/19 growing season. In RS, most farms are larger than 150 ha, farmers use minimal or conventional tillage, permanent flooding, adopted the CL system for more than two years, use clomazone PRE tank-mixed with glyphosate at the rice spiking stage, and use crop rotation with soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] or pasture. In SC, rice farms are small, averaging from 20 to 30 ha, farmers predominantly plant pre-germinated rice and do not rotate rice with other crops and roguing is practiced. Comparing both states, the CL System is used in 99.5, and 69.3% of the total surveyed rice area in RS and SC, respectively. Imidazolinone-resistant WR is present in 68.4 and 26.6% of rice farms in RS and SC, respectively. Rice cultivation in Brazil is currently coexisting with WR with minimal integration of control methods. However, integrated practices can control this weed and are fundamental to the sustainability of systems based on herbicide-resistant rice cultivars.
The spatio-temporal dynamics of an outbreak provide important insights to help direct public health resources intended to control transmission. They also provide a focus for detailed epidemiological studies and allow the timing and impact of interventions to be assessed.
A common approach is to aggregate case data to administrative regions. Whilst providing a good visual impression of change over space, this method masks spatial variation and assumes that disease risk is constant across space. Risk factors for COVID-19 (e.g. population density, deprivation and ethnicity) vary from place to place across England so it follows that risk will also vary spatially. Kernel density estimation compares the spatial distribution of cases relative to the underlying population, unfettered by arbitrary geographical boundaries, to produce a continuous estimate of spatially varying risk.
Using test results from healthcare settings in England (Pillar 1 of the UK Government testing strategy) and freely available methods and software, we estimated the spatial and spatio-temporal risk of COVID-19 infection across England for the first 6 months of 2020. Widespread transmission was underway when partial lockdown measures were introduced on 23 March 2020 and the greatest risk erred towards large urban areas. The rapid growth phase of the outbreak coincided with multiple introductions to England from the European mainland. The spatio-temporal risk was highly labile throughout.
In terms of controlling transmission, the most important practical application of our results is the accurate identification of areas within regions that may require tailored intervention strategies. We recommend that this approach is absorbed into routine surveillance outputs in England. Further risk characterisation using widespread community testing (Pillar 2) data is needed as is the increased use of predictive spatial models at fine spatial scales.
Under stress, corals and foraminifera may eject or consume their algal symbionts (“bleach”), which can increase mortality. How bleaching relates to species viability over warming events is of great interest given current global warming. We use size-specific isotope analyses and abundance counts to examine photosymbiosis and population dynamics of planktonic foraminifera across the Paleocene–Eocene thermal maximum (PETM, ~56 Ma), the most severe Cenozoic global warming event. We find variable responses of photosymbiotic associations across localities and species. In the NE Atlantic (DSDP Site 401) PETM, photosymbiotic clades (acarininids and morozovellids) exhibit collapsed size-δ13C gradients indicative of reduced photosymbiosis, as also observed in Central Pacific (ODP Site 1209) and Southern Ocean (ODP Site 690) acarininids. In contrast, we find no significant loss of size-δ13C gradients on the New Jersey shelf (Millville) or in Central Pacific morozovellids. Unlike modern bleaching-induced mass mortality, populations of photosymbiont-bearing planktonic foraminifera increased in relative abundance during the PETM. Multigenerational adaptive responses, including flexibility in photosymbiont associations and excursion taxon evolution, may have allowed some photosymbiotic foraminifera to thrive. We conclude that deconvolving the effects of biology on isotope composition on a site-by-site basis is vital for environmental reconstructions.
Mucositis is an inflammation of the gastrointestinal mucosa resulting from high doses of radio/chemotherapy treatment and may lead to interruption of antineoplasic therapy. Soluble fibres, like pectin, increase SCFA production, which play a role in gut homoeostasis and inflammation suppression. Due to the properties of pectin, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a high-fibre (HF) diet on chemotherapy-induced mucositis in a murine model. C57/BL6 mice received control (AIN93M), HF, low/zero fibre (LF) diets for 10 d prior to mucositis challenging with irinotecan (75 mg/kg), or they were treated with acetate added to drinking water 5 d prior to and during the mucositis induction. Mice that received the HF diet showed decreased immune cells influx and improved histopathological parameters in the intestine, compared with mice that received the normal diet. Furthermore, the HF diet decreased intestinal permeability induced in the mucositis model when compared with the control group. This effect was not observed for acetate alone, which did not improve gut permeability. For instance, mice that received the LF diet had worsened gut permeability, compared with mice that received the normal diet and mucositis. The effects of the HF and LF diets were shown to modulate the intestinal microbiota, in which the LF diet increased the levels of Enterobacteriaceae, a group associated with gut inflammation, whereas the HF diet decreased this group and increased Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium (SCFA producers) levels. In conclusion, the results demonstrated the importance of dietary fibre intake in the modulation of gut microbiota composition and homoeostasis maintenance during mucositis in this model.
This chapter comprises the following sections: names, taxonomy, subspecies and distribution, descriptive notes, habitat, movements and home range, activity patterns, feeding ecology, reproduction and growth, behavior, parasites and diseases, status in the wild, and status in captivity.
Conflicts between humans and bears have occurred since prehistory. Through time, the catalogue of human–bear conflicts (HBC) has been changing depending on the values and needs of human societies and their interactions with bears. Even today, conflict situations vary among the eight species of bears and geographically across these species’ ranges. This results in a broad range of interactions between bears and humans that may be considered as conflicts, including: (1) predation of domestic or semiwild animals, including bees, hunting dogs, and pet animals; (2) damage due to foraging on cultivated berries, fruits, agricultural products, and the tree bark in forest plantations; (3) economic loss due to destruction of beehives, fences, silos, houses, and other human property; (4) bear attacks on humans causing mild or fatal trauma; (5) bluff charges, bear intrusions into residential areas; and (6) vehicle collisions with bears and traffic accidents. In this chapter we aim to outline the principal types of HBC and geographical differences in the occurrence of conflicts and the coexistence between people and bears.
Microelectrode recordings (MERs) are used during deep brain stimulation surgery (DBS) to optimize patient outcomes and provide a unique method of collecting data regarding neurological conditions. However, MERs can be affected by anesthetics such as dexmedetomidine. Little is known about the effects of dexmedetomidine (DEX) on the globus pallidus interna (GPi), a common target for DBS. The primary aim of this study is to investigate the hypothesis that DEX is associated with alterations in GPi MERs.
We conducted a retrospective analysis comparing MERs from patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and dystonia who underwent insertion of DBS of the GPi under DEX sedation with those who went through the same procedure without DEX (No DEX).
Firing rates for GPi neurons in the DEX group were lower (57.44 ± 2.04; mean ± SEM, n = 163 cells) than the No DEX group (69.53 ± 2.06, n = 112 cells, P < 0.0001). Overall, DEX was associated with a greater proportion of GPi cells classified as firing in bursty pattern compared to our No DEX group. (29.41%, n = 153 vs 14.81%, n = 108, P = 0.008). This effect was present for both PD and dystonia patients who underwent the procedure. High doses of DEX were associated with lower firing rates than low doses.
Our results suggest that DEX is associated with a decrease in GPi firing rates and are associated with an increase in burstiness. Furthermore, these effects are similar between dystonia and PD patients. Lastly, the effects of DEX may differ between high doses and low doses.
Parasomnias are involuntary behaviors or subjective experiences during sleep. Our objective was to review existing information on the presence of parasomnias in patients with addictions or during treatment for addictions. Information about parasomnias related to rapid-eye-movement (REM) and non-REM sleep in patients with addictions, while using substances or in abstinence, was reviewed. A systematic search of published articles reporting parasomnias as a consequence of drug use or abuse was conducted in the PubMed and SciELO databases. The search for the studies was performed in three phases: (1) by title, (2) by abstract, and (3) by complete text. The search was performed independently by two researchers, who then compared their results from each screening phase. Seventeen articles were found. The consumption of alcohol was reported in association with arousal disorders, such as sexsomnia and sleep-related eating disorder; and REM sleep behavior disorder was reported during alcohol withdrawal. Cocaine abuse was associated with REM sleep behavior disorder with drug consumption dream content. Overall, we found that several types of parasomnias were very frequent in patients with addictions. To avoid accidents in bedroom, legal problems, and improve evolution and prognosis; must be mandatory to include security measures related to sleep period; avoid pharmacological therapy described as potential trigger factor; improve sleep hygiene; and give pharmacological and behavioral treatments for patients with these comorbid sleep disorders.
Normative data should consider sociodemographic diversity for the accurate diagnosis of cognitive impairment. This study aims to provide normative data for a brief neuropsychological battery and present diagnostic criteria for cognitive impairment that could be used in primary care settings.
We selected 9618 Brazilian middle-aged and older adults after detailed exclusion criteria to avoid subtle cognitive impairment. We analyzed age, sex, and education influence on cognitive performance. To verify the evidence of criterion validity, we compared the cognitive performance of subjects with and without a depressive episode. Additionally, we verified the percentage of spurious scores under three different cutoffs.
Age and education had the greatest impact on cognition. Normative scores were provided according to age and education groups. Participants with a depressive episode performed poorer than control subjects. The clinical cutoff of at least two scores below the 7th percentile revealed the adequate percentage of spurious and possible clinical performance.
The Longitudinal Study on Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) provided normative data based on a unique selected set of cognitively normal subjects. Normative groups were selected based on age and education, and the battery was sensitive to the presence of a depressive episode. We suggested clinical cutoffs for the tests in this battery that could be used in primary care settings to improve the accurate diagnosis of cognitive impairment.
The transgenic Liberty Link® (LL) soybean is tolerant to glufosinate, conferred by the enzyme phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT), which is encoded by the pat gene from Streptomyces viridochromogenes. Because symptoms of injury can be observed in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] plants in some situations, this study evaluated the effects of rates of glufosinate on agronomic performance; quality of LL soybean seeds; and the ammonia, glufosinate, and N-acetyl-l-glufosinate concentration (NAG) in soybeans with and without the pat gene after application of increasing glufosinate rates. Field and greenhouse experiments were conducted; the first evaluated the selectivity of glufosinate in LL soybeans, and the second evaluated the metabolic changes in soybeans with (LL) and without (RR2) the pat gene, after application of glufosinate. For fieldwork, application of glufosinate at rates up to four times the maximum recommended caused initial injury symptoms (up to 38.5%) in LL soybean plants. However, no negative effect was found on seed quality and agronomic performance of LL plants, including yield. This shows the selectivity of glufosinate promoted by pat gene insertion for application in POST (V4), in LL soybean. For the greenhouse experiment, it was concluded that the LL soybean plants presented high glufosinate metabolism, lower ammonia concentration, and no reduction in dry matter, in comparison with RR2 soybean, after application of high rates of glufosinate.
The clinical manifestations of epilepsy are not restricted to epileptic seizures. They often include psychiatric and cognitive comorbidities, which need to be identified and treated as part of the comprehensive management of any patient with epilepsy (PWE). This is particularly relevant in patients with treatment-resistant epilepsy in whom the prevalence of these comorbidities is significantly higher.
Social and environmental factors such as poverty or violence modulate the risk and course of schizophrenia. However, how they affect the brain in patients with psychosis remains unclear.
We studied how environmental factors are related to brain structure in patients with schizophrenia and controls in Latin America, where these factors are large and unequally distributed.
This is a multicentre study of magnetic resonance imaging in patients with schizophrenia and controls from six Latin American cities. Total and voxel-level grey matter volumes, and their relationship with neighbourhood characteristics such as average income and homicide rates, were analysed with a general linear model.
A total of 334 patients with schizophrenia and 262 controls were included. Income was differentially related to total grey matter volume in both groups (P = 0.006). Controls showed a positive correlation between total grey matter volume and income (R = 0.14, P = 0.02). Surprisingly, this relationship was not present in patients with schizophrenia (R = −0.076, P = 0.17). Voxel-level analysis confirmed that this interaction was widespread across the cortex. After adjusting for global brain changes, income was positively related to prefrontal cortex volumes only in controls. Conversely, the hippocampus in patients with schizophrenia, but not in controls, was relatively larger in affluent environments. There was no significant correlation between environmental violence and brain structure.
Our results highlight the interplay between environment, particularly poverty, and individual characteristics in psychosis. This is particularly important for harsh environments such as low- and middle-income countries, where potentially less brain vulnerability (less grey matter loss) is sufficient to become unwell in adverse (poor) environments.
Various psychological and biological pathways have been proposed as mediators between childhood adversity (CA) and psychosis. A systematic review of the evidence in this domain is needed. Our aim is to systematically review the evidence on psychological and biological mediators between CA and psychosis across the psychosis spectrum. This review followed PRISMA guidelines. Articles published between 1979 and July 2019 were identified through a literature search in OVID (PsychINFO, Medline and Embase) and Cochrane Libraries. The evidence by each analysis and each study is presented by group of mediator categories found. The percentage of total effect mediated was calculated. Forty-eight studies were included, 21 in clinical samples and 27 in the general population (GP) with a total of 82 352 subjects from GP and 3189 from clinical studies. The quality of studies was judged as ‘fair’. Our results showed (i) solid evidence of mediation between CA and psychosis by negative cognitive schemas about the self, the world and others (NS); by dissociation and other post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms; and through an affective pathway in GP but not in subjects with disorder; (iii) lack of studies exploring biological mediators. We found evidence suggesting that various overlapping and not competing pathways involving post-traumatic and mood symptoms, as well as negative cognitions contribute partially to the link between CA and psychosis. Experiences of CA, along with relevant mediators should be routinely assessed in patients with psychosis. Evidence testing efficacy of interventions targeting such mediators through cognitive behavioural approaches and/or pharmacological means is needed in future.
A new Saldidae (MCT 6959-I) from the Crato Formation (Lower Cretaceous, late Aptian), Santana Group, Araripe Basin (northeastern Brazil) is described and illustrated. Olindasalda gondwanica n. gen. n. sp. is the first fossil Saldidae recorded from the Gondwanan supercontinent. The new genus can be distinguished from other members of the subfamily Chiloxanthinae by its small (4.49 mm) and oval-elongated body, absence of spots on the corium of the hemelytron, long R vein, and much-reduced first cell of the membrane. Remarks on the geology of the type locality and a comparison of the new genus with other saldids are provided.
Efficient algorithm integration is a key issue in aerial robotics. However, only a few integration solutions rely on a cognitive approach. Cognitive approaches break down complex problems into independent units that may deal with progressively lower-level data interfaces, all the way down to sensors and actuators. A cognitive architecture defines information flow among units to produce emergent intelligent behavior. Despite the improvements in autonomous decision-making, several key issues remain open. One of these issues is the selection, coordination, and decision-making related to the several specialized tasks required for fulfilling mission objectives. This work addresses decision-making for the cognitive unmanned-aerial-vehicle architecture coined as ARCog. The proposed architecture lays the groundwork for the development of a software platform aligned with the requirements of the state-of-the-art technology in the field. The system is designed to provide high-level decision-making. Experiments prove that ARCog works correctly in its target scenario.
Failure to adjust doses may contribute to adverse events. We evaluated the effectiveness of providing the estimated glomerular filtration rate on appropriateness of dosing for antimicrobials. The approach increased appropriateness of dosing from 33.9% to 41.4% (P < .001). Nudging prescription behavior can boost strategies for adequate antimicrobial prescription.