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The recent increase in well-localised fast radio bursts (FRBs) has facilitated in-depth studies of global FRB host properties, the source circumburst medium, and the potential impacts of these environments on the burst properties. The Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) has localised 11 FRBs with sub-arcsecond to arcsecond precision, leading to sub-galaxy localisation regions in some cases and those covering much of the host galaxy in others. The method used to astrometrically register the FRB image frame for ASKAP, in order to align it with images taken at other wavelengths, is currently limited by the brightness of continuum sources detected in the short-duration (‘snapshot’) voltage data captured by the Commensal Real-Time ASKAP Fast Transients (CRAFT) software correlator, which are used to correct for any frame offsets due to imperfect calibration solutions and estimate the accuracy of any required correction. In this paper, we use dedicated observations of bright, compact radio sources in the low- and mid-frequency bands observable by ASKAP to investigate the typical astrometric accuracy of the positions obtained using this so-called ‘snapshot’ technique. Having captured these data with both the CRAFT software and ASKAP hardware correlators, we also compare the offset distributions obtained from both data products to estimate a typical offset between the image frames resulting from the differing processing paths, laying the groundwork for future use of the longer duration, higher signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) data recorded by the hardware correlator. We find typical offsets between the two frames of
arcsec in the low- and mid-band data, respectively, for both RA and Dec. We also find reasonable agreement between our offset distributions and those of the published FRBs. We detect only a weak dependence in positional offset on the relative separation in time and elevation between target and calibrator scans, with the trends being more pronounced in the low-band data and in Dec. Conversely, the offsets show a clear dependence on frequency in the low band, which we compare to the frequency-dependent Dec. offsets found in FRB 200430. In addition, we present a refined methodology for estimating the overall astrometric accuracy of CRAFT FRBs.
In the United States, politics has become tribal and personalized. The influence of partisan divisions has extended beyond the political realm into everyday life, affecting relationships and workplaces as well as the ballot box. To help explain this trend, we examine the stereotypes Americans have of ordinary Democrats and Republicans. Using data from surveys, experiments, and Americans' own words, we explore the content of partisan stereotypes and find that they come in three main flavors—parties as their own tribes, coalitions of other tribes, or vehicles for political issues. These different stereotypes influence partisan conflict: people who hold trait-based stereotypes tend to display the highest levels of polarization, while holding issue-based stereotypes decreases polarization. This finding suggests that reducing partisan conflict does not require downplaying partisan divisions but shifting the focus to political priorities rather than identity—a turn to what we call responsible partisanship.
Weight cycling is prevalent in sports/professions with body composition standards, and has been associated with weight management behaviours that may contribute to suboptimal diet quality and weight gain. US Army Soldiers may be at increased risk of weight cycling relative to civilians due to mandated body composition standards. However, the relationship between weight cycling, weight management behaviours, BMI and diet quality among Soldiers is unknown. In this cross-sectional study, 575 Soldiers (89 % enlisted, 90 % male, 23 ± 4 years) at Army installations at Joint Base Elmendorf-Richardson, AK, Joint-Base Lewis McChord, WA, and Fort Campbell, KY completed questionnaires on food frequency, health-related behaviours and history of weight cycling (≥ 3 weight fluctuations ≥ 5 % body weight). Weight cycling was reported by 33 % of Soldiers. Those who reported weight cycling reported higher BMI (27 ± 4 v. 25 ± 3 kg/m2, P < 0·001) and higher prevalence of engaging in weight management behaviours prior to body weight screening but did not report lower dietary quality (Healthy Eating Index-2015 (HEI) scores 59 ± 10 v 59 ± 11, P = 0·46) relative to those who did not report weight cycling. Results of mediation analyses suggested that weight cycling may affect BMI both directly (c’ = 1·19, 95 % CI: 0·62, 1·75) and indirectly (ab = 0·45, 95 % CI: 0·19, 0·75), and HEI scores indirectly (ab = 0·69, 95 % CI: 0·20, 1·35) through the adoption of weight management behaviours. Weight cycling is common in Soldiers and is associated with higher BMI and higher prevalence of engaging in weight management behaviours that mediate associations between weight cycling, BMI and diet quality.
Studying phenotypic and genetic characteristics of age at onset (AAO) and polarity at onset (PAO) in bipolar disorder can provide new insights into disease pathology and facilitate the development of screening tools.
To examine the genetic architecture of AAO and PAO and their association with bipolar disorder disease characteristics.
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) and polygenic score (PGS) analyses of AAO (n = 12 977) and PAO (n = 6773) were conducted in patients with bipolar disorder from 34 cohorts and a replication sample (n = 2237). The association of onset with disease characteristics was investigated in two of these cohorts.
Earlier AAO was associated with a higher probability of psychotic symptoms, suicidality, lower educational attainment, not living together and fewer episodes. Depressive onset correlated with suicidality and manic onset correlated with delusions and manic episodes. Systematic differences in AAO between cohorts and continents of origin were observed. This was also reflected in single-nucleotide variant-based heritability estimates, with higher heritabilities for stricter onset definitions. Increased PGS for autism spectrum disorder (β = −0.34 years, s.e. = 0.08), major depression (β = −0.34 years, s.e. = 0.08), schizophrenia (β = −0.39 years, s.e. = 0.08), and educational attainment (β = −0.31 years, s.e. = 0.08) were associated with an earlier AAO. The AAO GWAS identified one significant locus, but this finding did not replicate. Neither GWAS nor PGS analyses yielded significant associations with PAO.
AAO and PAO are associated with indicators of bipolar disorder severity. Individuals with an earlier onset show an increased polygenic liability for a broad spectrum of psychiatric traits. Systematic differences in AAO across cohorts, continents and phenotype definitions introduce significant heterogeneity, affecting analyses.
Charles Bonnet syndrome (CBS) is characterized by the presence of visual hallucinations without other sensory-perceptual disturbances or evidence of organic mental disorder nor functional psychosis.
Review differential diagnosis of BCS, searching articles in Pubmed.
62-year-old woman, undergoing treatment with Sertraline and psychotherapy for three months because of anxious-depressive synthoms. Pathological myopia and retinal detachment in 2012, blind left eye, retaining 33% vision in the right eye. She comes to the emergency room feeling really anxious, she says that for a year now she has had the feeling that her husband is cheating on her with another woman, and she claims with certainty that she sees a woman in her bed at night, as well as flashes of light evidencing her presence. She has also begun to hear voices through the telephone wires. She and her family deny memory loss or other cognitive impairments. We performed a Nuclear Magnetic Resonance with normal results. Family claims good conygal relation until these synthoms began and no signs of cognitive impairment.
The patient lives as real these hallucinations which haven´t appeared during admission. We started treatment with an antipsychotic and a benzodiazepine, with great improvement of anxiety and development of some insight. Executive impairment was observed.
The results obtained, make us think that, although our patient has an important visual loss, it is more a psychiatric pathology. Here lies the importance of a multidisciplinary approach among ophthalmologists, neurologists and psychiatrists in order to avoid misdiagnosis and that the patient can benefit from proper treatment.
Capgras syndrome, where patients have the conviction that one or more close people have been replaced by a “double,” is the most prevalent delusional misidentification syndrome. It appears in psychiatric illness and organic brain damage. It seems to be due to damage of bifrontal and right limbic and temporal regions, mainly in the right hemisphere.
To review the pathologies associated to Capgras Syndrome and the relevance of the differential diagnosis
53-year-old female was admitted due to great sadness, crying, social withdrawal and severe paranoid concerns over the last month. Follow-up in Mental Health since 2014, because of anxious depression. After her mother’s death, she felt being followed because of old faults. Since then, low dosis of antipsychotics were used. Now she is afraid of being harmed in relation to petty thefts she committed over 15 years ago. In recent days, she has been noticing small details indicating that her family members have been impersonated by strangers, showing anguish regarding their whereabouts.
During her admission, high doses of antidepresants and paliperidone 6 mg/day were used with the complete disappearance of Capgras Syndrome and her anguish. Mild guilty thoughts were present after her discharge. That is why she was diagnosed with psychotic depression.
Capgras syndrome can be encountered in primary psychiatric diagnosis (particularly in schizophrenia and mood disorders) – where an organic element may exist in about a third of all cases – or secondary to organic disorders or medication-induced, through to overt organic brain damage, particularly in neurodegenerative disease.
Mental retardation (RM) is defined as by a deficient intellectual capacity as well as by alterations of the adaptive capacity that are externalized in two or more functional areas (Personal autonomy, Communication, Orientation in the environment, Work and Free time).
Present a patient with a severe behavioural disturbance with an associated intellectual deficit, who remained hospitalized for 2 months and after observing an oral alteration her symptoms improved.
A descriptive study of a clinical case
54-year-old woman, single. You have a moderate intellectual disability. In January 2019, she began mental health consultations with a diagnosis of adjustment disorder, on treatment with aripiprazole 5 mg/day, mirtazapine 15 mg/day, lorazepam 0.5 mg/day and dipotassium clorazepate 10 mg/day. Went to the emergency room with mutism, hyporesponsiveness and refuse to intake, having lost 25 kg in 6 months. Abdominal and thoracic CT and upper gastrointestinal endoscopy without significant findings. Consultation with otorhinolaryngology, dermatology, traumatology without significant findings. Odontostomatology consultation: Deep cavities are observed, so it is necessary to carry out extractions of the pieces in poor condition. After this intervention, the patient returns to accept oral intake.
People with intellectual disabilities have a wide range of medical problems that in many cases are directly associated with the underlying disease or syndrome and, in others, with poor physical health due to problems in basic self-care skills or the ability to express verbally. Usually, the first manifestation of pain is an alteration in behaviour, which must be taken into account when making a differential diagnosis.
Charles Bonnet syndrome (CBS) is characterized by the presence of visual hallucinations, generally complex, which occurs in patients with alterations in the visual pathway. The majority of affected patients are elderly. It appears in 15% of people with visual loss, predominantly in the 80-year-old female gender.
To present a clinical case of a patient with visual hallucinations and a possible diagnosis of Charles Bonnet syndrome. Highlight the importance of an adequate differential diagnosis.
Bibliographic review of the treatment and diagnosis of CBS, from articles published in the last 5 years in Pubmed.
Woman, 80 years old. No ophthalmological history except those associated with advanced age. She goes to the emergency room due to the presence of visual hallucinosis, in the form of “television presenters” of whom she makes partial criticism, being aware most of the time of their unreality. Hallucinations are not accompanied by anxiety or significant affective repercussions. Discarded delirium, intoxication by substances or drugs that cause the condition. Currently under follow-up to rule out other causes.
The diagnosis of SCB requires a multidisciplinary approach between neurologists, psychiatrists and ophthalmologists in order to avoid erroneous diagnoses. The differential diagnosis should be made with pathologies such as Lewy body dementia, Parkinson’s disease, delirium, substance intoxication, migraine aura, and metabolic encephalopathy, among others. It is important to involve the family in the treatment of the syndrome to reinforce the recognition of the unreality of these hallucinations in the patients. Antipsychotic treatment can be effective only if the condition is extremely distressing.
Although schizophrenia and anorexia nervosa are very different disorders, when they occur in the same patient it can be difficult to distinguish whether the alterations in body image are due to psychotic symptoms or correspond to a comorbid eating disorder. It is also relevant to know how they can interact with each other.
Presentation of a clinical case of anorexia nervosa in the context of a patient with a previous diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia.
Bibliographic review of the relationship between schizophrenia and alterations in the perception of body image by searching for articles in Pubmed.
We present a 48-year-old woman who resides with her mother and a sister. Diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia and eating disorder. She had previously been admitted to hospital twice. Since 2004, she has been followed up in mental health consultations. The patient reports constant weight changes. A year ago she began to feel overweight and began to restrict her intake and to exercise, having lost 20 kg. She reports psychotic symptoms in the past, that she now denies. Various scales show moderate impact of weight on personal perception of psychosocial adjustment, an impulse to thinness and a significant distortion of body image, perceiving herself as heavier than she is and wishing she was lighter.
In schizophrenia, confusion in bodily experiences and states is not uncommon. The possible interactions between the symptoms of schizophrenia and anorexia nervosa complicate the adequate care of these patients. Further research on comorbidity of these two disorders is necessary.
The main feature of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is impairing preoccupation with a physical defect that appears slight or non-existent to others.
To draw an overview of BDD through a clinical case of a patient with BDD and autolytic ideation, which improved after an adequate diagnosis and an early pharmacological and psychotherapeutic approach.
Bibliographic review of the treatment and diagnosis of BDD, from articles published in the last 5 years in Pubmed.
18-year-old woman diagnosed with depression and obsessive ideation, which started at the age of 11, after a comment at school. The patient believes that she has intenseunder-eye bags or dark circles, this has caused her to abandon all activity and self-isolate at home. Symptoms included recurring obsessive and intruding thoughts related to the supposed defect, ritualized behaviors of hours of duration aiming toit through makeup, and autolytic ideation. Therapeutic approach combined psychopharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatments, obtaining gradual improvement of symptomatology and disappearance of the autolytic ideation.
The disorder is severe, which is reflected in high rates of suicide attempts. Differential diagnosis between obsessive and delirious dysmorphophobia is essential for improving outcomes; the egodystonic nature of the symptom, awareness of illness and obsessive personality traits facilitate the diagnosis. A multidisciplinary approach involving psychiatrists and clinical psychologists is necessary for a correct diagnosis and early treatment of this pathology, as well as recognition by dermatologists, surgeons and medical aesthetic professionals, where these patients go with the aim of finding solutions to their problem.
Lithium is widely used in the treatment of the bipolar disorder. Once introduced, it is necessary to carry out an adequate control of the therapeutic range, since it is potentially toxic, and can affect various organs.
To present the case of a patient suffering from lithium poisoning and to review the symptoms of lithium poisoning.
A descriptive study of a clinical case and review of the literature
49-year-old woman, married. Diagnosed with bipolar disorder. She went to the emergency room due to a low level of consciousness, kidney failure, trembling of the limbs, hyperthermia and leukocytosis. In the last two weeks, the patient has reduced her intake of food, not water, finding herself more and more shaky and less reactive. Lithium in blood at admission 1.71, so conventional dialysis was performed with a progressive decrease into 0.65. On examination, he is practically mutist, bradypsychia with a significant response latency. Clinical judgment: Accidental lithium poisoning.
The primary site of toxicity is the central nervous system and clinical manifestations vary from asymptomatic supratherapeutic drug concentrations to clinical toxicity such as confusion, ataxia, or seizures. Severe lithium neurotoxicity occurs almost exclusively in the context of chronic therapeutic administration of lithium and rarely results from acute ingestion of lithium, even in patients currently taking lithium. As such it is an iatrogenic illness, occurring in patients who have identifiable clinical risk factors: nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, older age, abnormal thyroid function and impaired renal function.
Cognitive depressive disorder (or depressive pseudodementia) is a condition defined by functional impairment, similar to dementias or other neurodegenerative disorders, in the context of psychiatric patients. It is important to consider a differential diagnosis in patients with cognitive impairment.
Presentation of a clinical case of a patient with depression with psychotic symptoms who presents cognitive impairment.
Bibliographic review of the differential diagnosis between cognitive depressive disorder and real dementia by searching for articles in PubMed.
We present a 51-year-old woman, previously diagnosed with adjustment disorder (with mixed anxiety and depressed mood) and unspecific anxiety disorder, who was admitted to the hospital due to delusional ideation of harm and Capgras syndrome, ensuring that her relatives had been replaced and the rest of the patients were not real patients, but actors who conspired against her. The MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) was strictly normal (tumors or acute injuries as stroke or hemorrhage were discarded), and a MoCA (Montreal Cognitive Assesment) test was performed to screen any cognitive impairments (obtaining a score of 19/30, with language fluency and abstraction particularly affected). It would be convenient to repeat the test when this episode and the psychotic symptoms are resolved or improved.
1. Some patients may have cognitive impairment in the context of a mood disorder. 2. A differential diagnosis and follow-up of these patients should be performed to assess prognosis, reversibility and treatment. 3. Depressive cognitive impairment may precede the development and establishment of a dementia or neurodegenerative picture.
Dio in his imperial narrative has a distinctive technique of evaluating emperors, based on how he saw the informational constraints of the monarchical state. He tends to frame his assessments of emperors as descriptions of how they were perceived by contemporaries rather than as his own unique insights into how they ‘really’ were. This chapter applies James C. Scott's concept of ‘public transcripts’ and ‘hidden transcripts’ to Dio’s methodological statements and then his narrative of the Julio-Claudian, Flavian and Antonine emperors. Dio is a self-consciously acute and skeptical observer of the performance of imperial power and the reception of that performance by contemporary observers. This for him is a major component of what historiography exists to record in an environment where the actual realities of power politics cannot be fully known or discussed. The chapter concludes by looking at how this narrative stance changes in Dio’s contemporary narrative, in which he is a personal witness, but the emperors are youthful figureheads, whose performances become ever more detached from either the realities of politics or the experience of the senatorial aristocracy.
Background: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported 32,600 cases, 2,700 deaths, and healthcare costs of 767 million dollars attributed to multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A recent study of 128 patients with nosocomial pneumonia due to P. aeruginosa showed the noninferiority of ceftolozane-tazobactam compared to meropenem. However, the resistance of ceftolozane-tazobactam due to AmpC mutations has been described. Compared with 2019, we observed an increase from 2 to 13 cases of ceftolozane-tazobactam–resistant P. aeruginosa (CRPA) during the COVID-19 pandemic at our institution in the Bronx, New York. Methods: A report of patients with CRPA between March and August 2020 was obtained. Data collected included demographics, hospitalization/IV antibiotic use in prior 90 days, SARS-CoV-2 PCR result, ICU admission, length of stay, antibiotic days of therapy, mortality, etc. Results: In total, 13 patients with CRPA infection were reviewed (Table 1). Among them, 2 patients were on the same inpatient medical-surgical unit but separated by 5 months. Also, 11 patients were from different medical-surgical units or ICUs. In addition, 5 patients (38%) were SARS-CoV-2 PCR positive. None of these COVID-19 patients were cohorted on the same unit, making horizontal spread of CRPA or COVID-19 unlikely. Finally, 8 of these patients died while hospitalized (4 were COVID-19 patients). Conclusions: We found a high incidence of mortality in patients with CRPA infection. Many patients had prolonged hospital stay and required ICU admission. Few patients were from long-term care facilities. Given the associated morbidity and mortality, increased surveillance and intensified antimicrobial stewardship efforts are needed to mitigate the impact of CRPA during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination effectiveness in healthcare personnel (HCP) has been established. However, questions remain regarding its performance in high-risk healthcare occupations and work locations. We describe the effect of a COVID-19 HCP vaccination campaign on SARS-CoV-2 infection by timing of vaccination, job type, and work location.
We conducted a retrospective review of COVID-19 vaccination acceptance, incidence of postvaccination COVID-19, hospitalization, and mortality among 16,156 faculty, students, and staff at a large academic medical center. Data were collected 8 weeks prior to the start of phase 1a vaccination of frontline employees and ended 11 weeks after campaign onset.
The COVID-19 incidence rate among HCP at our institution decreased from 3.2% during the 8 weeks prior to the start of vaccinations to 0.38% by 4 weeks after campaign initiation. COVID-19 risk was reduced among individuals who received a single vaccination (hazard ratio [HR], 0.52; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.40–0.68; P < .0001) and was further reduced with 2 doses of vaccine (HR, 0.17; 95% CI, 0.09–0.32; P < .0001). By 2 weeks after the second dose, the observed case positivity rate was 0.04%. Among phase 1a HCP, we observed a lower risk of COVID-19 among physicians and a trend toward higher risk for respiratory therapists independent of vaccination status. Rates of infection were similar in a subgroup of nurses when examined by work location.
Our findings show the real-world effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccination in HCP. Despite these encouraging results, unvaccinated HCP remain at an elevated risk of infection, highlighting the need for targeted outreach to combat vaccine hesitancy.
There are minimal data directly comparing plasma neurofilament light (NfL) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in aging and neurodegenerative disease research. We evaluated associations of plasma NfL and plasma GFAP with brain volume and cognition in two independent cohorts of older adults diagnosed as clinically normal (CN), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), or Alzheimer’s dementia.
We studied 121 total participants (Cohort 1: n = 50, age 71.6 ± 6.9 years, 78% CN, 22% MCI; Cohort 2: n = 71, age 72.2 ± 9.2 years, 45% CN, 25% MCI, 30% dementia). Gray and white matter volumes were obtained for total brain and broad subregions of interest (ROIs). Neuropsychological testing evaluated memory, executive functioning, language, and visuospatial abilities. Plasma samples were analyzed in duplicate for NfL and GFAP using single molecule array assays (Quanterix Simoa). Linear regression models with structural MRI and cognitive outcomes included plasma NfL and GFAP simultaneously along with relevant covariates.
Higher plasma GFAP was associated with lower white matter volume in both cohorts for temporal (Cohort 1: β = −0.33, p = .002; Cohort 2: β = −0.36, p = .03) and parietal ROIs (Cohort 1: β = −0.31, p = .01; Cohort 2: β = −0.35, p = .04). No consistent findings emerged for gray matter volumes. Higher plasma GFAP was associated with lower executive function scores (Cohort 1: β = −0.38, p = .01; Cohort 2: β = −0.36, p = .007). Plasma NfL was not associated with gray or white matter volumes, or cognition after adjusting for plasma GFAP.
Plasma GFAP may be more sensitive to white matter and cognitive changes than plasma NfL. Biomarkers reflecting astroglial pathophysiology may capture complex dynamics of aging and neurodegenerative disease.
Time constraints have been suggested as a potential driver of antibiotic overuse for acute respiratory tract infections. In this cross-sectional analysis of national data from visits to offices and emergency departments, we identified no statistically significant association between antibiotic prescribing and the duration of visits for acute respiratory tract infections.
Who governs America’s cities: organized interests or mass publics? Though recent scholarship finds that local governments enact policies that align with citizens’ preferences, others argue that it is organized interests, not mass publics that are influential. To reconcile these perspectives, we show that election timing can help shed light on when voters or groups will be pivotal in city politics. Examining 1,600 large US cities, we find that off-cycle elections affect city policy responsiveness asymmetrically, weakening responsiveness on those issues where there is an active and organized interest whose policy objectives deviate from the preferences of the median resident. Here, we focus on public employees’ interests and find that local governments that are elected off cycle spend more on city workers than would be preferred by citizens in more conservative cities. We conclude by discussing the implications of these findings for the study of interest groups and representation in local politics.