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Right ventricular outflow tract intervention spans transcatheter, surgical, or hybrid pulmonary valve replacement methodologies. Standardised pre-procedure workup includes cardiac MRI to identify an intended valve site (landing zone). Our institutional practice includes measurement of the right ventricular outflow tract perimeter (circumference) of this site in end-systole. Our primary aim was to compare patients by their perimeter values to the palliative interventions performed (transcatheter versus surgical/hybrid methodologies).
Retrospective review of patients undergoing pulmonary valve replacement from January 2017 to 2021. We performed perimeter measurements at the intended valve site on advanced imaging; the outcomes of interventions were outlined via descriptive and statistical analyses.
A total of 37 patients underwent pulmonary valve replacement that met study criteria – 21 transcatheter, 7 surgical, and 9 hybrid. Median age at intervention was 26 years (range 8–70). The mean end-systolic perimeter of the transcatheter cohort was 88.9 ± 8.7 mm and in the surgical/hybrid cohort measured 106.6 ± 7.5 mm. For the transcatheter cohort, the median “circularised” diameter derived from the perimeter measurement (divided by π) was 27.7 mm (range 24.3–32.4). Notably, this correlated (r = 0.93, p < 0.01) with the median diameter of the narrowest region during actual transcatheter right ventricular outflow tract balloon sizing (lateral imaging) of 27.1 mm (range 23.2–30.1).
Right ventricular outflow tract perimeter measurement to determine circularised diameter is useful in planning pulmonary valve replacement in terms of candidacy of transcatheter versus the need for a surgical/hybrid approach. The circularised diameter correlates with transcatheter right ventricular outflow tract balloon sizing.
Substantial progress has been made in the standardization of nomenclature for paediatric and congenital cardiac care. In 1936, Maude Abbott published her Atlas of Congenital Cardiac Disease, which was the first formal attempt to classify congenital heart disease. The International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code (IPCCC) is now utilized worldwide and has most recently become the paediatric and congenital cardiac component of the Eleventh Revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). The most recent publication of the IPCCC was in 2017. This manuscript provides an updated 2021 version of the IPCCC.
The International Society for Nomenclature of Paediatric and Congenital Heart Disease (ISNPCHD), in collaboration with the World Health Organization (WHO), developed the paediatric and congenital cardiac nomenclature that is now within the eleventh version of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). This unification of IPCCC and ICD-11 is the IPCCC ICD-11 Nomenclature and is the first time that the clinical nomenclature for paediatric and congenital cardiac care and the administrative nomenclature for paediatric and congenital cardiac care are harmonized. The resultant congenital cardiac component of ICD-11 was increased from 29 congenital cardiac codes in ICD-9 and 73 congenital cardiac codes in ICD-10 to 318 codes submitted by ISNPCHD through 2018 for incorporation into ICD-11. After these 318 terms were incorporated into ICD-11 in 2018, the WHO ICD-11 team added an additional 49 terms, some of which are acceptable legacy terms from ICD-10, while others provide greater granularity than the ISNPCHD thought was originally acceptable. Thus, the total number of paediatric and congenital cardiac terms in ICD-11 is 367. In this manuscript, we describe and review the terminology, hierarchy, and definitions of the IPCCC ICD-11 Nomenclature. This article, therefore, presents a global system of nomenclature for paediatric and congenital cardiac care that unifies clinical and administrative nomenclature.
The members of ISNPCHD realize that the nomenclature published in this manuscript will continue to evolve. The version of the IPCCC that was published in 2017 has evolved and changed, and it is now replaced by this 2021 version. In the future, ISNPCHD will again publish updated versions of IPCCC, as IPCCC continues to evolve.
Microvascular dysfunction in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy has been associated with poor clinical outcome. Several studies have demonstrated a reduced perfusion reserve proportional to the magnitude of the hypertrophy. We investigated the utility of stress perfusion cardiac MRI to detect microvascular dysfunction in children with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
From January 2016 to January 2017, 13 patients, with a mean age of 15.3 years, with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy underwent regadenoson stress perfusion cardiac MRI (1.5-T Siemens Aera). A single-shot, T1-weighted saturation recovery gradient echo was used for first-pass perfusion in a multiple-slices group, including three short-axis slices and one four-chamber slice. Coronary vasodilatory stress was achieved using bolus injection of regadenoson (lexiscan 0.4 mg/5 ml) and dynamic perfusion during rest and stress performed by administering 0.05 mmol/kg of gadolinium contrast agent (gadoteridol) injected at a rate of 3.5 ml/s, followed by assessment of viability using two-dimensional phase-sensitive inversion recovery of the entire myocardium.
All patients completed protocols with no interruptions. In all, seven patients developed perfusion defects after the administration of regadenoson. Asymmetric septal hypertrophy was the most common pattern of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (n=4) in those with abnormal perfusion. A total of four patients with perfusion defects had a maximum wall thickness <30 mm. The finding of perfusion defects in areas without late gadolinium enhancement in some of our patients indicates that gadolinium enhancement by itself could underestimate the true extension of microvascular disease. Out of seven patients, five patients with positive stress cardiac MRI have undergone implantable cardioverter defibrillator placement based on current guidelines.
Regadenoson stress cardiac MRI is feasible and clinically valuable in paediatric patients. It is particularly effective in unmasking abnormal myocardial perfusion in the presence of microvascular dysfunction in children with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
The entity of crossed pulmonary arteries was first described by Jue, Lockman, and Edwards in 1966, in a patient with trisomy 18. Since then, several series have been described, both in terms of the isolated anatomic variant, or its association with other intracardiac or extracardiac anomalies. We describe a rare association that has previously not been reported.
Methods and results
Institutional Review Board approval for a retrospective chart review was obtained. Over the period 2011 through 2013, we have encountered six patients in whom the crossed origins of the pulmonary arteries from the pulmonary trunk were associated with hypoplasia of the transverse aortic arch, an association that, to the best of our knowledge, has previously not been reported. In all of the patients, the isthmic component of the aortic arch was inserted in an end-to-side manner into the ductal arch, with additional discrete coarctation in half of the patients.
To the best of our knowledge, no cases of crossed pulmonary arteries have been described in association with hypoplasia of the transverse aortic arch. We draw comparisons between the cases with exclusively tubular hypoplasia, and those with the added problem of the more typical isthmic variant of aortic coarctation. In all cases, the ability to reconstruct cross-sectional images added significantly to the diagnosis and understanding of these complex lesions. These findings have specific surgical implications, which are discussed.
Since Takotsubo cardiomyopathy was first described by Sato in 1990, multiple cases have been reported, but only few in children, among whom this type of cardiomyopathy is to some extent underappreciated. A series of children with this syndrome were therefore reviewed, drawing comparison with cases reported by others. The review addresses the current challenges in diagnosis, presentation, triggers, clinical course, management, and possible pathogenic mechanisms of the entity.
We describe an atypical case of an atrioventricular septal defect with a common atrioventricular junction in which the right-sided component of the common atrioventricular valve was imperforate, producing tricuspid atresia with a severely hypoplastic right ventricle and an ostium primum defect. We discuss the implications of the anatomic findings with regard to concepts of cardiac development, drawing a comparison with similar cases previously reported.
We describe an atypical presentation of stress-induced cardiomyopathy – Takotsubo cardiomyopathy – in a 16-month-old boy previously diagnosed with cyclic vomiting and episodic hypertension. He developed features of cardiac failure and his echocardiogram showed left ventricular wall motion abnormality accompanied with elevated cardiac enzymes. Cardiac catheterisation showed no coronary arterial abnormality. Complete spontaneous recovery occurred 2 weeks after admission.
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