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Obesity rates among children are rapidly rising internationally and have been linked to noncommunicable diseases in adulthood. Individual preventive strategies have not effectively reduced global obesity rates, leading to a gap in clinical services regarding the development of early perinatal interventions. The objective of this scoping review is to explore the relationship between maternal BMI and breastfeeding behaviors on child growth trajectories to determine their relevance in developing interventions aimed at preventing childhood obesity.
The scoping review was guided and informed by the Arksey and O’Malley (2005) framework. A systematic search was performed in four databases. Studies included in the final review were collated and sorted into relevant themes. A systematic search yielded a total of 5831 records (MEDLINE: 1242, EMBASE: 2629, CINAHL: 820, PubMed: 1140). Results without duplicates (n = 4190) were screened based on relevancy of which 197 relevant-full-text articles were retrieved and assessed for eligibility resulting in 14 studies meeting the inclusion criteria. Data were extracted and charted for the studies and six themes were identified: (1) healthy behaviors, lifestyle, and social economic status; (2) parental anthropometrics and perinatal weight status; (3) genetics, epigenetics, and fetal programming; (4) early infant feeding; (5) infant growth trajectories; and (6) targeted prevention and interventions. Early life risk factors for child obesity are multifactorial and potentially modifiable. Several at-risk groups were identified who would benefit from early preventative interventions targeting the importance of healthy weight gain, exclusive breastfeeding to 6 months, and healthy lifestyle behaviors.
The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) framework aims to understand how environmental exposures in early life shape lifecycle health. Our understanding and the ability to prevent poor health outcomes and enrich for resiliency remain limited, in part, because exposure–outcome relationships are complex and poorly defined. We, therefore, aimed to determine the major DOHaD risk and resilience factors. A systematic approach with a 3-level screening process was used to conduct our Rapid Evidence Review following the established guidelines. Scientific databases using DOHaD-related keywords were searched to capture articles between January 1, 2009 and April 19, 2019. A final total of 56 systematic reviews/meta-analyses were obtained. Studies were categorized into domains based on primary exposures and outcomes investigated. Primary summary statistics and extracted data from the studies are presented in Graphical Overview for Evidence Reviews diagrams. There was substantial heterogeneity within and between studies. While global trends showed an increase in DOHaD publications over the last decade, the majority of data reported were from high-income countries. Articles were categorized under six exposure domains: Early Life Nutrition, Maternal/Paternal Health, Maternal/Paternal Psychological Exposure, Toxicants/Environment, Social Determinants, and Others. Studies examining social determinants of health and paternal influences were underrepresented. Only 23% of the articles explored resiliency factors. We synthesized major evidence on relationships between early life exposures and developmental and health outcomes, identifying risk and resiliency factors that influence later life health. Our findings provide insight into important trends and gaps in knowledge within many exposures and outcome domains.
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