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Severe mental illness (SMI) is associated with increased stroke risk, but little is known about how SMI relates to stroke prognosis and receipt of acute care.
To determine the association between SMI and stroke outcomes and receipt of process-of-care quality indicators (such as timely admission to stroke unit).
We conducted a cohort study using routinely collected linked data-sets, including adults with a first hospital admission for stroke in Scotland during 1991–2014, with process-of-care quality indicator data available from 2010. We identified pre-existing schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression from hospital records. We used logistic regression to evaluate 30-day, 1-year and 5-year mortality and receipt of process-of-care quality indicators by pre-existing SMI, adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical factors. We used Cox regression to evaluate further stroke and vascular events (stroke and myocardial infarction).
Among 228 699 patients who had had a stroke, 1186 (0.5%), 859 (0.4%), 7308 (3.2%) had schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression, respectively. Overall, median follow-up was 2.6 years. Compared with adults without a record of mental illness, 30-day mortality was higher for schizophrenia (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.33, 95% CI 1.16–1.52), bipolar disorder (aOR = 1.37, 95% CI 1.18–1.60) and major depression (aOR = 1.11, 95% CI 1.05–1.18). Each disorder was also associated with marked increased risk of 1-year and 5-year mortality and further stroke and vascular events. There were no clear differences in receipt of process-of-care quality indicators.
Pre-existing SMI was associated with higher risks of mortality and further vascular events. Urgent action is needed to better understand and address the reasons for these disparities.
In October 2019, public health surveillance systems in Scotland identified an increase in the number of reported infections of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O26:H11 involving bloody diarrhoea. Ultimately, across the United Kingdom (UK) 32 cases of STEC O26:H11 stx1a were identified, with the median age of 27 years and 64% were male; six cases were hospitalised. Among food exposures there was an association with consuming pre-packed sandwiches purchased at outlets belonging to a national food chain franchise (food outlet A) [odds ratio (OR) = 183.89, P < 0.001]. The common ingredient identified as a component of the majority of the sandwiches sold at food outlet A was a mixed salad of Apollo and Iceberg lettuce and spinach leaves. Microbiological testing of food and environmental samples were negative for STEC O26:H11, although STEC O36:H19 was isolated from a mixed salad sample taken from premises owned by food outlet A. Contamination of fresh produce is often due to a transient event and detection of the aetiological agent in food that has a short-shelf life is challenging. Robust, statistically significant epidemiological analysis should be sufficient evidence to direct timely and targeted on-farm investigations. A shift in focus from testing the microbiological quality of the produce to investigating the processes and practices through the supply chain and sampling the farm environment is recommended.
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