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Cognitive impairment is common in people with mental disorders, leading to transdiagnostic classification based on cognitive characteristics. However, few studies have used this approach for intellectual abilities and functional outcomes.
The present study aimed to classify people with mental disorders based on intellectual abilities and functional outcomes in a data-driven manner.
Seven hundred and forty-nine patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depression disorder or autism spectrum disorder and 1030 healthy control subjects were recruited from facilities in various regions of Japan. Two independent k-means cluster analyses were performed. First, intelligence variables (current estimated IQ, premorbid IQ, and IQ discrepancy) were included. Second, number of work hours per week was included instead of premorbid IQ.
Four clusters were identified in the two analyses. These clusters were specifically characterised in terms of IQ discrepancy in the first cluster analysis, whereas the work variable was the most salient feature in the second cluster analysis. Distributions of clinical diagnoses in the two cluster analyses showed that all diagnoses were unevenly represented across the clusters.
Intellectual abilities and work outcomes are effective classifiers in transdiagnostic approaches. The results of our study also suggest the importance of diagnosis-specific strategies to support functional recovery in people with mental disorders.
The consumption of probiotics by pregnant and lactating women may prevent the onset of allergic disorders in their children by increasing the concentrations of immunoactive agents such as cytokines in breast milk. Prebiotics such as fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) increase the number of beneficial organisms such as bifidobacteria. Thus, prebiotics may have an effect similar to that of probiotics. The objective of the present study was to carry out a comprehensive analysis of mRNA expression in human milk cells to identify changes in the concentrations of cytokines in breast milk after the consumption of FOS (4 g × 2 times/d) by pregnant and lactating women. The microarray analysis of human milk cells demonstrated that the expression levels of five genes in colostrum samples and fourteen genes in 1-month breast milk samples differed more than 3-fold between the FOS and control groups (sucrose group). The mRNA expression level of IL-27, a cytokine associated with immunoregulatory function, was significantly higher in 1-month breast milk samples obtained from the FOS group than in those obtained from the control group. In addition, the protein concentrations of IL-27 in colostrum and 1-month breast milk samples were significantly higher in the FOS group than in the control group. In conclusion, the consumption of FOS by pregnant and lactating women increases the production of IL-27 in breast milk. Future studies will address the association of this phenomenon with the onset of allergic disorders in children.
Impact resistance of a hot-forged TiAl alloy with a composition of Ti-42∼44Al-5∼10M: M=V, Mn(at%), consisting of lamellar, γ and β grain of which the hot-workability was improved by introducing β phase, has been investigated using an instrumented Charpy impact test, tensile test at high strain rate and foreign object attack test. In instrumented Charpy impact test the absorbed energies for crack initiation and propagation were measured, and the effect of microstructure on the absorbed energies has been analyzed, by paying attention to the grain size, interlamellar spacing and lamellar area fraction. In tensile test at high strain rate, the dependence of strain rate of hot-extruded TiAl alloy is obtained and compared with that of Nickel based superalloy, Inconel 713C. In foreign object attack test with taper plate specimen modified turbine blade and brass ball as foreign object, the relation between impact damage and thickness of specimen at attack point is investigated. A limit of impact energy, at which there isn't a crack on buck of attack point, is obtained with each thickness about hot-forged TiAl alloy, Ti-42Al-5Mn. Therefore, the method of improvement of toughness and assessment of impact resistance of TiAl alloy is shown in this study.
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