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This chapter argues that for quality teaching to be achieved, teachers must engage in professional training and development, which involves formulating and developing theories of their applied practice based on research and experience and which includes a critical reflection of actual data. An important component in what is acknowledged to be a complex multi-faceted task is the view that it is the quality of teacher problem solving and decision making that is a key variable in linking sound research to effective practice and thus supporting the raising of pupil standards and attainments. The 'scientist-practitioner approach' involves a conceptual stance by practitioners in which teaching methods and practices are informed according to valid and reliable evidence, either derived from the research literature or developed rigorously through the use of the scientific method within 'real-world' situations.