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We perform SPH simulations coupled with nuclear reactions to follow tidal disruption events (TDEs) of white dwarfs (WDs) by intermediate mass black holes (IMBHs). We consider an oxygen-neon-magnesium (ONeMg) WD with 1.2M⊙ as well as a helium (He) WD with 0.3M⊙, and a carbon-oxygen (CO) WD with 0.6M⊙. Our WD models have different numbers of SPH particles, N, up to a few 10 million. We find that nucleosynthesis does not converge against N even for N > 107. For all the WDs, the amount of radioactive nuclei, such as 56Ni, decreases with increasing N. Nuclear reactions might be extinguished for infinitely large N. Our results show that these kinds of TDEs, if solely powered by radioactive decays, are much dimmer optical transients similar to Type Ia supernovae as previously suggested.
We review emission processes within the supernova (SN) ejecta. Examples of the application of the theory to observational data are presented. The emission processes and thermal condition within the SN ejecta change as a function of time, and multi-epoch observations are important to obtain comprehensive views. Through the analyses, we can constrain the progenitor radius, compositions as a function of depth, ejecta properties, explosion asymmetry and so on. Multi-frequency follow-up is also important, including radio synchrotron emissions and the inverse Compton effect, γ-ray emissions from radioactive decay of newly synthesized materials. The optical data are essential to make the best use of the multi-frequency data.
Origins of superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) discovered by recent SN surveys are still not known well. One idea to explain the huge luminosity is the collision of dense CSM and SN ejecta. If SN ejecta is surrounded by dense CSM, the kinetic energy of SN ejecta is efficiently converted to radiation energy, making them very bright. To see how well this idea works quantitatively, we performed numerical simulations of collisions of SN ejecta and dense CSM by using one-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics code STELLA and obtained light curves (LCs) resulting from the collision. First, we show the results of our LC modeling of SLSN 2006gy. We find that physical parameters of dense CSM estimated by using the idea of shock breakout in dense CSM (e.g., Chevalier & Irwin 2011, Moriya & Tominaga 2012) can explain the LC properties of SN 2006gy well. The dense CSM's radius is about 1016 cm and its mass about 15 M⊙. It should be ejected within a few decades before the explosion of the progenitor. We also discuss how LCs change with different CSM and SN ejecta properties and origins of the diversity of H-rich SLSNe. This can potentially be a probe to see diversities in mass-loss properties of the progenitors. Finally, we also discuss a possible signature of SN ejecta-CSM interaction which can be found in H-poor SLSN.
Asymmetry in the innermost part of the supernova (SN) ejecta is a key to understanding their explosion mechanisms. Late-time spectroscopy is a powerful tool to investigate the issue. We show what kind of geometry is inferred for different types of SNe – core-collapse SNe Ib/c, those associated with Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs), and thermonuclear SNe Ia –, and discuss implications for the explosion mechanisms, observational diversities, and cosmological applications. For SNe Ib/c, the data show the clear deviation from spherical symmetry, and they are most consistent with the bipolar-type explosion as the characteristic geometry. Detailed modeling of optical emissions from SN 1998bw associated with GRB980425 indicates that this SN was in the extreme end of the bipolar explosion, suggesting that the explosion mechanisms of canonical SNe Ib/c and GRB-SNe are different. The situation is different for SNe Ia. Late-time spectra indicate the deviation from spherical symmetry, but for SNe Ia the explosion is asymmetric between two hemispheres, i.e., one-sided explosions. The diversities arising from different viewing directions can nicely explain (a part of) observational diversities of SNe Ia, and correcting this effect may improve the standard-candle calibration of SNe Ia for cosmology.
Studying a multi-dimensional structure of supernovae (SNe) gives important constraints on the mechanism of the SN explosion. Polarization measurement is one of the most powerful methods to study the explosion geometry of extragalactic SNe. Especially, Type Ib/c SNe are the ideal targets because the core of the explosion is bare. We have performed spectropolarimetric observations of Type Ib/c SNe with the Subaru telescope. We detect a rotation of the polarization angle across the line, which is seen as a loop in the Q - U plane. This indicates that axisymmetry is broken in the SN ejecta. Adding our new data to the sample of stripped-envelope SNe with high-quality spectropolarimetric data, five SNe out of six show a loop in the Q - U plane. This implies that the SN explosion commonly has a non-axisymmetric, three-dimensional geometry.
We have obtained optical integral field spectroscopy of the explosion sites of more than 25 nearby type-IIP/IIL/Ib/Ic supernovae using UH88/SNIFS, and additionally Gemini/GMOS IFU. This technique enables us to obtain both spatial and spectral information of the immediate environment of the supernovae. Using strong line method we measured the metallicity of the star cluster present at the explosion site, presumably the coeval parent stellar population of the supernova progenitor, and comparison with simple stellar population models gives age estimate of the cluster. With this method we were able to put constraints on the metallicity and age of the progenitor star. The age, i.e. lifetime, of the progenitor corresponds to the initial mass of the star. By far this is the most direct measurement of supernova progenitor metallicity and, if the cluster-progenitor association is confirmed, provides reliable determination of the initial mass of supernova progenitor stars.
The first metal enrichment in the universe was made by supernova (SN) explosions of population (Pop) III stars. The history of chemical evolution is recorded in abundance patterns of extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars. We investigate the properties of nucleosynthesis in Pop III SNe by comparing their yields with the abundance patterns of the EMP stars. We focus on (1) jet-induced SNe with various properties of the jets, especially energy deposition rates [Ėdep = (0.3 − 1500) × 1051 ergs s−1], and (2) SNe of stars with various main-sequence masses (Mms = 13 − 50M⊙) and explosion energies [E = (1 − 40) × 1051ergs]. The varieties of Pop III SNe can explain the observations of the EMP stars: (1) higher [C/Fe] for lower [Fe/H] and (2) trends of abundance ratios [X/Fe] against [Fe/H].
We investigate the evolution of dust formed in Population III supernovae (SNe) by considering its transport and processing by sputtering within the SN remnants (SNRs). We find that the fate of dust grains within SNRs heavily depends on their initial radii aini. For Type II SNRs expanding into the ambient medium with density of nH,0 = 1 cm−3, grains of aini < 0.05 μm are detained in the shocked hot gas and are completely destroyed, while grains of aini > 0.2 μm are injected into the surrounding medium without being significantly destroyed. Grains with aini = 0.05–0.2 μm are finally trapped in the dense shell behind the forward shock. We show that the grains piled up in the dense shell enrich the gas up to 10−6–10−4Z⊙, high enough to form low-mass stars with 0.1–1 M⊙. In addition, [Fe/H] in the dense shell ranges from −6 to −4.5, which is in good agreement with the ultra-metal-poor stars with [Fe/H] < −4. We suggest that newly formed dust in a Population III SN can have great impact on the stellar mass and elemental composition of Population II.5 stars formed in the shell of the SNR.
The very peculiar abundance patterns observed in extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars can not be explained by conventional normal supernova nucleosynthesis but can be well-reproduced by nucleosynthesis in hyper-energetic and hyper-aspherical explosions, i.e., Hypernovae (HNe). Previously, such HNe have been observed only as Type Ic supernovae. Here, we examine the properties of recent Type Ib supernovae (SNe Ib). In particular, SN Ib 2008D associated with the luminous X-ray transient 080109 is found to be a more energetic explosion than normal core-collapse supernovae. We estimate that the progenitor's main sequence mass is MMS = 20 − 25M⊙ with an explosion of kinetic energy of EK ~ 6.0 × 1051 erg. These properties are intermediate between those of normal SNe and hypernovae associated with gamma-ray bursts. Therefore, such energetic SNe Ib could also make an important contribution to the chemical enrichment in the early Universe.
We calculate evolution, collapse, explosion, and nucleosynthesis of Population III very massive stars with 500 M⊙ and 1000 M⊙. It was found that both 500 M⊙ and 1000 M⊙ models enter the region of pair-instability but continue to undergo core collapse to black holes. For moderately aspherical explosions, the patterns of nucleosynthesis match the observational data of intergalactic and intercluster medium and hot gases in M82, better than models involving hypernovae and pair instability supernovae.
Our results suggest that explosions of Population III core-collapse very massive stars contribute significantly to the chemical evolution of gases in clusters of galaxies. The final black hole masses are about 500 M⊙ for our most massive 1000 M⊙ models. This result may support the view that Population III very massive stars are responsible for the origin of intermediate mass black holes which were recently reported to be discovered.
A ceria-based in-situ conditioning process was successfully developed. A new single layered metal bonded conditioner was developed to solve problems encountered in implementing ceria based in-situ conditioning process. The planarity was significantly improved compared with that of conventional Ni-plated in-situ conditioning.
The properties of the best-observed peculiar, SN 1998bw-like Type Ic supernovae (sometimes called “hypernovae” ) are reviewed, starting from SN 1998bw itself and including SNe 1997ef and 2002ap. Analysis of the light curves and the spectra shows that, while these SNe display a range of properties (kinetic energy, mass of the ejecta, mass of 56Ni synthesized in the explosion), they have in common a larger-than-normal explosion kinetic energy, giving rise to the characteristic broad-lined spectra. Also, they all come from the collapse of bare CO cores of massive ( ≳ 20M⊙) progenitor stars. Some of the properties of these SNe, such as kinetic energy and mass of 56Ni, are probably correlated with the mass of the progenitor. Evidence that these powerful events are intrinsically asymmetric, suggesting that a correlation with at least some gamma-ray bursts can be expected, is also discussed.
We review the characteristics of nucleosynthesis in ‘hypernovae’, i.e., core-collapse supernovae with very large explosion energies (≳ 1052 ergs). The hypernova yields show the following characteristics: (i) the mass ratio between the complete and incomplete Si burning regions is larger in hypernovae than normal supernovae. As a result, higher energy explosions tend to produce larger [(Zn, Co, V)/Fe] and smaller [(Mn, Cr)/Fe], which could explain the trend observed in very metal-poor stars; (ii) because of enhanced α-rich freeze-out, 44Ca, 48Ti, and 64Zn are produced more abundantly than in normal supernovae. The large [(Ti, Zn)/Fe] ratios observed in very metal poor stars strongly suggest a significant contribution of hypernovae; and (iii) oxygen burning takes place in more extended regions in hypernovae to synthesize a larger amount of Si, S, Ar, and Ca (‘Si’), which makes the ‘Si’/O ratio larger. The abundance pattern of the starburst galaxy M 82 may be attributed to hypernova explosions. We thus suggest that hypernovae make important contribution to the early Galactic (and cosmic) chemical evolution.
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