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This study examined cross-linguistic transfer in oral language skills in a sample of 50 native Hebrew speakers who learned English as a second language. The ability to retrieve phonological forms of words in naming, as manifested by the tendency to experience tip-of-the-tongue states, was correlated across languages. We also found within and across language correlations between this ability and grammatical accuracy, lexical diversity, and syntactic complexity in second language narratives. These findings are consistent with the transfer across languages in oral language skills and provide insights into the processes linking phonological and higher level encoding in production of connected speech.
The majority of patients with circadian rhythm sleep disorders (CRSD) report that the disorder typically began in early childhood or adolescence. The diagnosis of CRSDs can be established through three procedures: clinical interview, longitudinal monitoring of the sleep-wake cycle, and assessment of biological markers of the internal circadian rhythmicity. Bright light therapy and melatonin treatment, or a combination of these two, have proved to be the most effective treatment modalities for patients with CRSDs. This chapter reviews the disorders that have been systematically examined with regard to CRSDs, specifically mood disorders, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), personality disorders, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Several cases of disrupted sleep-wake schedule as iatrogenic effects of psychoactive drugs are documented in the literature. Switching treatment to the atypical neuroleptic clozapine established a more organized and stable sleep-wake pattern and improved the clinical state of the patient.
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