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A standardised multi-site approach to manage paediatric post-operative chylothorax does not exist and leads to unnecessary practice variation. The Chylothorax Work Group utilised the Pediatric Critical Care Consortium infrastructure to address this gap.
Over 60 multi-disciplinary providers representing 22 centres convened virtually as a quality initiative to develop an algorithm to manage paediatric post-operative chylothorax. Agreement was objectively quantified for each recommendation in the algorithm by utilising an anonymous survey. “Consensus” was defined as ≥ 80% of responses as “agree” or “strongly agree” to a recommendation. In order to determine if the algorithm recommendations would be correctly interpreted in the clinical environment, we developed ex vivo simulations and surveyed patients who developed the algorithm and patients who did not.
The algorithm is intended for all children (<18 years of age) within 30 days of cardiac surgery. It contains rationale for 11 central chylothorax management recommendations; diagnostic criteria and evaluation, trial of fat-modified diet, stratification by volume of daily output, timing of first-line medical therapy for “low” and “high” volume patients, and timing and duration of fat-modified diet. All recommendations achieved “consensus” (agreement >80%) by the workgroup (range 81–100%). Ex vivo simulations demonstrated good understanding by developers (range 94–100%) and non-developers (73%–100%).
The quality improvement effort represents the first multi-site algorithm for the management of paediatric post-operative chylothorax. The algorithm includes transparent and objective measures of agreement and understanding. Agreement to the algorithm recommendations was >80%, and overall understanding was 94%.
Children with CHD are at risk for obesity and low levels of activity. These factors are associated with an increased risk of poor outcome. Participation in organised sports is an important avenue for children to maintain physical activity, though the relationship between sports participation and obesity has not been examined in the Fontan population.
We performed a cross-sectional study of children aged 8–18 who had been evaluated between January 1, 2015 and October 1, 2019 at the Doernbecher Children’s Hospital outpatient paediatric cardiology clinic and had previously undergone a Fontan. Patients were excluded if they were unable to ambulate independently or if they had undergone a heart transplant. Patient characteristics were recorded from the electronic medical record. Parents were interviewed via a telephone survey and asked to describe their child’s activity levels and sports participation.
Our final cohort included 40 individuals, 74% were male. The overall prevalence of obesity (CDC BMI >95% for sex/age) in the cohort (23%) was significantly higher in non-athletes (33%) than athletes (0) (p = 0.02). There was no difference in cardiac complications or comorbidities between athletes and non-athletes. Athletes were more likely to meet daily activity recommendations (p = 0.05).
Fontan patients who do not participate in sports are significantly more likely to be obese and less likely to be active than those who do. This is the first study to demonstrate the association between competitive sports participation and decreased likelihood of obesity in the Fontan population.
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