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The first instance of assisted reproductive technology (ART) was when an eminent surgeon, John Hunter of London assisted a woman in becoming pregnant by taking a semen sample produced by her husband, who had hypospadias, and inseminated her with that specimen. Some of the earliest observations on fertilization of human oocytes were made by Robert Edwards and published in 1965 in a landmark paper: "Maturation in vitro of human ovarian oocytes". It was the need for Edwards to be able to obtain the supplies of pre-ovulatory human oocytes that brought him and gynecologist Patrick Steptoe (1913-88) together in 1968. After 102 failed embryo transfers (ET), Leslie Brown was treated and subsequently became pregnant following her first embryo transfer. The world's second in vitro fertilization (IVF) baby was achieved in India, following work by Dr. Subhash Mukhopadhyay. A baby was born on October 3, 1978 following IVF and ET.