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In future technology nodes, 22nm and below, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) may provide a viable alternative to Cu as an interconnect material. CNTs exhibit a current carrying capacity (up to 109 A/cm2), whilst also providing a significantly higher thermal conductivity (SWCNT ~ 5000 WmK) over Copper (106 A/cm2 and ~400WmK). However, exploiting such properties of CNTs in small vias is a challenging endeavor. In reality, to outperform Cu in terms of a reduction in via resistance alone, densities in the order of 1013 CNTs/cm2 are required. At present, conventional thermal CVD of carbon nanotubes is carried out at temperatures far in excess of CMOS temperature limits (400 C). Furthermore, high density CNT bundles are most commonly grown on insulating supports such as Al2O3 and SiO2 as they can effectively stabilize metallic nanoparticles at elevated temperatures but this limits their application in electronic devices. To circumvent these obstacles we employ a remote microwave plasma to grow high density CNTs at a temperature of 400 C on conductive underlayers such as TiN. We identify some critical factors important for high-quality CNTs at low temperatures such as control over the catalyst to underlayer interaction and plasma growth environment while presenting a fully CMOS compatible carbon nanotube synthesis approach
This work aims at attaining a more complete understanding of the principles governing resistive contrast imaging (RCI) of copper/low-k interconnects used for dielectric breakdown studies in a nanoprober scanning electron microscope (SEM) system. RCI is employed in such in situ dielectric breakdown studies to facilitate the localization of interconnect defect sites related to various stages in the degradation process of the low-k dielectric material. This work shows that RCI is suitable for detecting high-resistance sites, like opens, in copper/low-k interconnects. Moreover, RCI demonstrates potential in locating defects that lie deep in the test structure and are, thus, not detectable by SEM. A model is also proposed to explain the formation of RCI images of specific interconnect test structures with complex layout.
In order to continuously improve the performances of microelectronics devices through scaling, SiO2 is being replaced by high-k materials as gate dielectric; metal gates are replacing poly-Si. This leads to increasingly more complex stacks. For future generations, the replacement of Si as a substrate by Ge and/or III/V material is also considered. This also increases the demand on the metrology tools as a thorough characterization, including composition and thickness is thus needed. Many different techniques exist for composition analysis. They usually require however large area for the analysis, complex instrumentation and can be time consuming. EDS (Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy) when coupled to Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) has the potential to allow fast analysis on small scale areas.
In this work, we evaluate the possibilities of EDS for thin film analysis based on an intercomparison of composition analysis with different techniques. We show that using proper modeling, high quality quantitative composition and thickness of multilayers can be achieved.
The feasibility of a templated seedless approach for growing segmented p-i-n nanowires –based diodes based on selective epitaxial growth is demonstrated. Such diodes are the basic structure for a TunnelFET device. This approach has the potential for being easily scalable at a full-wafer processing, and there is no theoretical limitation for control on nanowires growth and properties when scaling down their diameters, as opposed to an unconstrained vapor-liquid-solid growth. Moreover, Si/SixGe1-x hetero-structures are implemented, showing that this can improve the TFET ON current not only thanks to the lowered barrier for the band-to-band source-channel tunneling, but additionally thanks to its lower thermal budget for growth, allowing for better control of the abruptness of the doping profile at the source-channel tunneling interface.
The potential use of carbon nanotubes (CNT) as interconnects requires also new characterization approaches as the existing ones are optimized for three-dimensional materials and do not work for inherently one-dimensional structures like CNTs. Therefore, we have developed a so-called pick-and-place process which allows to remove an individual CNT from a specific site and to place it at another location for further analysis. The approach is based on nanomanipulation combined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). This paper presents the pick-and-place concept and explains the different steps required for its successful application. We further demonstrate its power by characterizing individual CNTs using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The developed pick-and-place approach overcomes the challenge of site-specific analysis of CNT interconnects and strongly facilitates the routine analysis of CNTs.
The low limit of the deposition temperature for atomic layer deposition (ALD) of noble metals has been studied. Two approaches were taken; using pure oxygen instead of air and using a noble metal starting surface instead of Al2O3. Platinum thin films were obtained by ALD from MeCpPtMe3 and pure oxygen at deposition temperature as low as 200 °C, which is significantly lower than the low-temperature limit of300 °C previously reported for the platinum ALD process in which air was used as the oxygen source. The platinum films grown in this study had smooth surfaces, adhered well to the substrate, and had low impurity contents. ALD of ruthenium, on the other hand, took place at lower deposition temperatures on an iridium seed layer than on an Al2O3 layer. On iridium surface, ruthenium films were obtained from RuCp2 and oxygen at 225 °C and from Ru(thd)3 and oxygen at 250 °C, whereas no films were obtained on Al2O3 at temperatures lower than 275 and 325 °C, respectively. The crystal orientation of the ruthenium films was found to depend on the precursor. ALD of palladium from a palladium β-ketoiminate precursor and oxygen at 250 and 275 °C was also studied. However, the film-growth rate did not saturate to a constant level when the precursor pulse times were increased.
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