Femtosecond (fs) laser application in three-dimensional (3D) optical recording is introduced. The laser irradiation on transparent glass and polymer matrix doped with fluorescent material is carried out, which changes the physical or chemical properties of the recording media and records information bits. With the change of the focusing positions inside the transparent substrates, 3D optical recording can be available for ultrahigh capacity data storage. Feasibility on fs laser drilling of poly-caprolactone (PCL) thin films for tissue engineering is investigated. It is found that precisely defined micro-hole arrays can be formed on the sample surfaces. Hydrophilic property of the processed samples is much improved, which provides good conditions for tissue cells to anchor on the man-made skin. Fs laser applications to form nanostructures on substrate surfaces are studied. Fs laser combination with near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) to induce surface property modification in the sub 50-nm under NSOM tip and nanoparticles is also discussed.