The spotted pod borer Maruca vitrata (Geyer) is known for its economic importance throughout its geographical distribution because of its destructive nature to reproductive parts of several grain legume crops including pigeonpea. In view of the importance of the pest, the present study was carried out on the association of different morpho-chemical traits with resistance/susceptibility to M. vitrata at the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, Patancheru, India. Trichome length and density, sugars, proteins and phenols were found to be associated with resistance to M. vitrata in short-duration pigeonpea genotypes. Pod damage by M. vitrata on different short-duration pigeonpea genotypes in the field ranged from 5.8 to 68%. Laboratory studies showed less consumption of food and reduced larval and pupal weights of M. vitrata when reared on the resistant genotypes ICPL 98003 and ICPL 98008 indicating antibiosis effects of the genotypes. Trichome density on upper and lower surfaces of the leaf (390 and 452/9 mm2), and length (3.5 mm) and trichome density (442/9 mm2) and length (5.9 mm) on pods were found positively correlated with the resistant genotype ICPL 98003. High sugar content in flowers (22%) and pods (10.6%) was responsible for the susceptibility of ICPL 88034, while high phenol concentration in flowers (6.5%) and pods (9.3%) in ICPL 98003 was responsible for resistance. Protein content in pods was significantly higher (25.5%) in susceptible ICPL 88034 when compared with resistant ICPL 98003 (16.5%). Based on these results, ICPL 98003 and ICPL 98008 were categorized as highly resistant and ICPL 98012 as moderately resistant. This paper discusses the physico-chemical traits associated with resistance to M. vitrata in short-duration pigeonpea genotypes.