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The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between affect and short-term life satisfaction (LS) taking into account the dimension of activation for positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) and the balance of PA and NA.
The study included 398 students (184 men and 214 women) who completed six questionnaires three of which were used for another study. The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule was utilized for assessing activated PA and NA. Two subscales of the Multiple Mood Scale were used to measure deactivated PA and NA, and the Short-term Life Satisfaction Scale for LS. Correlation analyses and hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted to mainly examine the relationships between affect balance (PA-NA and PA/NA) and LS.
The results of correlation analyses showed that LS was positively associated with affect balance in both activated and deactivated dimension. Additionally, the hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed a significant interaction between activated PA and NA, which indicated that the relationship between activated PA and LS in women was strengthened when the level of activated NA was relatively lower.
The findings in this study suggested that students who have stronger PA compared to NA might feel high LS in both activated and deactivated dimension. Moreover, it was suggested that the profitable effect of activated PA on LS in women would be larger when their activated NA was relatively weakened.
We examined the effects of affect and emotional suppression (ES) on short-term life satisfaction (LS). In doing so, we considered the dimension of activation for positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA).
The final sample included the data collected from 398 students (184 men and 214 women). The mean ages were 19.15 yrs for men and 19.84 yrs for women. Participants answered six questionnaires two of which were used for another study. The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule was utilized for assessing activated PA and NA, two subscales of the Multiple Mood Scale to measure deactivated PA and NA, respectively, one subscale of the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire for gauzing ES, and the Short-term Life Satisfaction Scale for LS. All of them were Japanese versions, answered on the past week.
Results showed that LS was positively associated with PA and negatively with NA, but that its positive association was stronger in activated PA than deactivated PA while its negative association was stronger in deactivated NA than activated NA. The interaction between deactivated NA and ES was significant in men, whose post-hoc tests suggested that deactivated NA was more negatively associated with LS when ES was higher.
This study suggested that activated and deactivated affect differ in their relations to life satisfaction. Moreover, it is likely that the detrimental effect of NA on life satisfaction is larger when the expression of NA is more strongly suppressed.
We examined the effects of affect and emotional suppression (ES) on short-term life satisfaction (LS) and depression. In doing so, we considered the dimension of activation for positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA).
The final sample included the data collected from 496 undergraduate and graduate students (240 men and 256 women). Participants answered seven questionnaires for assessing activated PA and NA, ES of PA and NA, short-term LS, and depression, three of which were used for another study. All of them were Japanese versions, answered on the past week.
Results from hierarchical regression analyses showed that LS was positively associated with PA and negatively with NA, but that its positive association was stronger in activated PA than deactivated PA while its negative association was stronger in deactivated NA than activated NA. Similar findings were obtained for depression. The significant interactions suggested:
(1) higher scores of ES of PA weaken the positive association between activated PA and LS in both sexes;
(2) higher scores of ES of NA strengthen the negative association between activated NA and LS in men and weaken the association in women; and
(3) the positive association between activated NA and depression is weakened by higher scores of ES of NA in women.
This study suggested that activated and deactivated affect differ in their relations to life satisfaction and depression. Moreover, it is likely that although ES of PA and NA influences health, its effects would be different between men and women.
We need to consider both suppression of positive and negative emotions (PE and NE) in examining the effects of emotional suppression (ES) on health and adjustment. The purpose of study was to develop a new emotional suppression scale to measure suppression of PE and NE, and to examine the effects of emotional suppression of PE and NE on depression and short-term life satisfaction (LS).
Participants were 496 undergraduate and graduate students (240 men and 256 women). They completed three questionnaires for assessing ES, depression, and short-term LS, along with a questionnaire to test the validity of the Emotional Suppression Scale for Positive and Negative Emotions (ESS) that was developed in this study.
First, we confirmed two factors in the ESS, named as ‘suppression of PE’ and ‘suppression of NE.’ The alphas were .69 and .73 for men and .69 and .76 for women, respectively. and it was revealed that each subscale of the ESS has concurrent validity. Thereafter, hierarchical regression analyses showed that higher suppression of PE was associated with lower LS and higher depression. Meanwhile, suppression of NE did not show any significant associations with health and adjustment, which was inconsistent with previous findings. Moreover, no significant interactions between suppression of PE and NE were found.
In this study, the ESS was developed with factorial and concurrent validities. Moreover, this study suggests that the effects of emotional suppression on health and adjustment would be different depending on what type of emotions is suppressed.
When we attempt to scrutinize the phenomena relating affect and health, we need to consider the activation dimension of positive and negative affect (PA and NA). In this study, after developing a scale to assess affect, we examined the effects of activated and deactivated PA and NA on depression and short-term life satisfaction (LS).
Participants were 496 undergraduate and graduate students (240 men and 256 women). They completed three questionnaires for assessing affect, depression, and short-term LS, respectively. In order to test the validity of the Activated and Deactivated Affect Questionnaire (ADAQ) that was developed in this study, the other two questionnaires were administered.
In the ADAQ, four factors, activated and deactivated PA and NA, were identified alongside sufficient internal consistency and concurrent validity. Results from hierarchical regression analyses showed that depression was negatively associated with PA and positively with NA, while LS was positively associated with PA and negatively with NA. These associations were found regardless of the levels of affect activation. Moreover, a number of significant PA x NA interactions revealed: (1) activated PA was negatively associated with depression, but this association was stronger with higher activated NA; and (2) regarding the effects on LS, the positive association between activated PA (or deactivated PA) and activated NA (or deactivated NA) was stronger with lower activated (or deactivated) NA.
This study suggests that the activation level of affect and relations of PA and NA would be differently influential on health and adjustment.
In recent years, affect and emotions are hot research topics in the domains of psychology and brain science. Moreover, an increasing number of studies have started to investigate the effects of implicit affect on health and adjustment. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of implicit affect on explicit emotional coping with others’ emotions and school adjustment in children.
Participants were 5th- and 6th-grade children in two public elementary schools in Japan. The final samples were fifty-six children (25 boys and 31 girls). Participants completed a battery of three questionnaires just before (T1) and after (T2) an school-based universal prevention program for enhancing emotional coping abilities with others’ emotions, which was implemented in eight classes during one month. The questionnaires were utilized for assessing implicit positive and negative affect (IPA and INA), explicit emotional coping abilities to identify, understand, and regulate others’ emotions, and the adaptive status of children at school.
Hierarchical regression analyses showed that higher IPA at T1 was associated with higher explicit emotional coping and motivation for learning at T2. Also, higher INA at T1 was related to better peer relationship at T2. Moreover, higher IPA and INA at T1 were concerned with higher scores of classroom climate and approval at T2.
This study suggested that higher IPA leads to higher explicit emotional coping with others’ emotions. Also, it suggested that higher implicit affectivity (i.e., both higher IPA and INA) causes more adaptive status of children at school.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
We have developed a group of school-based universal prevention programs for children's health and adjustment. The programs are characterized by new theories such as the somatic-marker hypothesis and enjoyable methods that utilize animated stories and games. This study adopted one of the programs for the development of self-confidence.
The aim was to examine the effectiveness of the program. In addition to the direct purposes of the program, children's adjustments at school and homeroom class were evaluated as extended effects.
Participants were third grade children in six public elementary schools in Japan. The final sample included 442 children (219 boys and 223 girls). The program was implemented weekly in one regular 45-minute class over 8 weeks. Participants completed a battery of three questionnaires three times, 1 month before the start of the program (T1), 1 week before the start of the program (T2), and during 1 week after the last class of the program (T3).
Results showed that all of the main endpoints of the program significantly improved in the intervention condition (i.e., changes from T2 to T3), compared to the control condition (i.e., changes from T1 to T2). Moreover, children's adjustment at school and homeroom class increased in the intervention condition, compared to the control condition. However, implicit affect was unchanged.
This study suggests that the program is effective for enhancing self-confidence, along with adjustments at school and in class. Future research that examines the sustainability of the effectiveness of the program is planned.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
A growing body of research suggests that deficient emotional self-regulation (DESR) is common and morbid among attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients. The main aim of the present study was to assess whether high and low levels of DESR in adult ADHD patients can be operationalized and whether they are clinically useful.
A total of 441 newly referred 18- to 55-year-old adults of both sexes with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Fifth Edition (DSM-5) ADHD completed self-reported rating scales. We operationalized DESR using items from the Barkley Current Behavior Scale. We used receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves to identify the optimal cut-off on the Barkley Emotional Dysregulation (ED) Scale to categorize patients as having high- versus low-level DESR and compared demographic and clinical characteristics between the groups.
We averaged the optimal Barkley ED Scale cut-points from the ROC curve analyses across all subscales and categorized ADHD patients as having high- (N = 191) or low-level (N = 250) DESR (total Barkley ED Scale score ≥8 or <8, respectively). Those with high-level DESR had significantly more severe symptoms of ADHD, executive dysfunction, autistic traits, levels of psychopathology, and worse quality of life compared with those with low-level DESR. There were no major differences in outcomes among medicated and unmedicated patients.
High levels of DESR are common in adults with ADHD and when present represent a burdensome source of added morbidity and disability worthy of further clinical and scientific attention.
In the previous work, it is reported that the Spin-Seebeck effect (SSE), which refer to the generation of a spin current from a temperature gradient, can be enhanced by Fe interface treatment. Here, we investigated the Fe thickness (dFe) dependency of spin-Seebeck voltage (VSSE) and mixing conductance (gr) in Pt/Fe/Bi:YIG/SGGG system. As a result, magnitude of VSSE had a peak at dFe ≓ 1 ML (monolayer , ≓ 0.3 mm), and also increase of gr was saturated at this point. It suggests that VSSE increase with increasing gr when dFe is smaller than 1.0 ML. For the case in which dFe is larger than 1.0ML, however, VSSE decreases due to a spin current decay in Fe layer with a constant gr. These experimental results are consistent with previous theoretical works.
In order to evaluate the role of the RAD51 G135C genetic polymorphism on the risk of gastric cancer induced by Helicobacter pylori infection, we determined allele frequency and genotype distribution of this polymorphism in Bhutan – a population documented with high prevalence of gastric cancer and extremely high prevalence of H. pylori infection. The status of RAD51 G135C was examined by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of PCR amplified fragments and sequencing. Histological scores were evaluated according to the updated Sydney system. G135C carriers showed significantly higher scores for intestinal metaplasia in the antrum than G135G carriers [mean (median) 0·33 (0) vs. 0·08 (0), P = 0·008]. Higher scores for intestinal metaplasia of G135C carriers compared to those of G135G carriers were also observed in H. pylori-positive patients [0·3 (0) vs. 0·1 (0), P = 0·002] and H. pylori-positive patients with gastritis [0·4 (0) vs. 0·1 (0), P = 0·002] but were not found in H. pylori-negative patients. Our findings revealed that a combination of H. pylori infection and RAD51 G135C genotype of the host showed an increasing score for intestinal metaplasia. Therefore, RAD51 G135C might be the important predictor for gastric cancer of H. pylori-infected patients.
We investigated electronic structure of one-dimensional biradical molecular chain which is constructed by exploiting the covalency between organic molecules of a diphenyl derivative of s-indacenodiphenalene (Ph2-IDPL). To control the crystallinity, we used gas deposition method. Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) revealed developed band structure with wide dispersion of the one-dimensional biradical molecular chain.
We present the discovery of out-flow like plasma emissions with the Suzaku and ASCA data. Those plasmas have a size of ∼150 pc. Remarkably, the southern plasma is in a recombination dominant phase, which is not predicted by standard shock heating. A plausible scenario is either photoionization due to strong jet-like X-rays from Sgr A* or rapid cooling due to adiabatic expansion of a blowout plasma from the Galactic center about 105 years ago.
A discharge-emission spectrometer and a cavity ringdown spectrometer have been developed to aid in the solution to the diffuse interstellar band (DIB) problem. A hollow cathode was used to generate molecular ions in a discharge because it has been suggested that molecular ions are probable DIB candidates. The discharge was produced by a pulsed voltage of 1300–1500 V. A wide wavelength range of optical emission from the discharge was examined by a HORIBA Jobin Yvon iHR320 monochromator. The dispersed discharge emission was detected by a photomultiplier and was recorded via a lock-in amplifier. The 2B3u–X2B2g electronic transition of the butatriene cation H2CCCCH2+ was observed in the discharge emission of 2-butyne H3CCCCH3. The frequency of the electronic transition was measured to be 20381 cm−1, and a comparison study was made with known DIB spectra.
The resolution of the discharge-emission spectrometer is insufficient to make precise comparisons between laboratory frequencies and astronomically observed DIB spectra. We therefore developed the cavity ringdown spectrometer using the same hollow cathode. The high sensitivity of this spectrometer was confirmed by the observation of the forbidden band of O2.
Radiocarbon analysis of the carbonaceous aerosol allows an apportionment of fossil and non-fossil sources of airborne particulate matter (PM). A chemical separation of total carbon (TC) into its subtractions organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) refines this powerful technique, as OC and EC originate from different sources and undergo different processes in the atmosphere. Although 14C analysis of TC, EC, and OC has recently gained increasing attention, interlaboratory quality assurance measures have largely been missing, especially for the isolation of EC and OC. In this work, we present results from an intercomparison of 9 laboratories for 14C analysis of carbonaceous aerosol samples on quartz fiber filters. Two ambient PM samples and 1 reference material (RM 8785) were provided with representative filter blanks. All laboratories performed 14C determinations of TC and a subset of isolated EC and OC for isotopic measurement. In general, 14C measurements of TC and OC agreed acceptably well between the laboratories, i.e. for TC within 0.015–0.025 F14C for the ambient filters and within 0.041 F14C for RM 8785. Due to inhomogeneous filter loading, RM 8785 demonstrated only limited applicability as a reference material for 14C analysis of carbonaceous aerosols. 14C analysis of EC revealed a large deviation between the laboratories of 28–79% as a consequence of different separation techniques. This result indicates a need for further discussion on optimal methods of EC isolation for 14C analysis and a second stage of this intercomparison.
We observed significant reduction of thermal conductivity in semiconducting composite films of Si and molybdenum (Mo)-silicide nanocrystals (NCs). These films were synthesized by phase separation due to annealing at 700 -1000°C from sputtered amorphous Mo–Si alloy. Transmission electron microscope images showed that the NCs were grown to diameters of∼10 nm in the films by annealing at 800°C. Raman scattering spectra showed lower shift of peak positions of Si transverse optical (TO) phonon due to the confinement effect and the tensile stress. The electrical resistivity of the films was 0.17- 9 Ωm at room temperature and showed a semiconducting temperature dependence at 20-400 K. Thermal conductivity of the film was reduced to 4.4 W/mK by enhancement of phonon scattering at NC interfaces, suggesting that the composite film is promising as a high-efficiency Si-based thermoelectric material.
We confirmed that GaN photocatalyst with NiO cocatalyst (GaN-NiO) continuously produced hydrogen from water for 500 hours without any extra bias. The GaN-NiO photocatalyst was hardly etched and 184-mL hydrogen gas was produced from the electric charge of 1612 coulombs, the Faradic efficiency of which was 89.2%. The conversion efficiency from incident light energy to hydrogen chemical energy was 0.98% in average for 500 h. The incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) was 50% at 300 nm and 35% at 350 nm after the experiment, which was much higher than those of other semiconductor-based photocatalysts.
We synthesized amorphous semiconductor films composed of Mo-encapsulating Si clusters (MoSin : n∼10) on solid substrates. The MoSi10 films had Si networks similar to hydrogenated amorphous Si and an optical gap of 1.5 eV. Electron spin resonance signals were not observed in the films indicating that dangling bonds of Si were terminated by Mo atoms. We fabricated thin-film-transistors using the MoSi10 film as a channel material. The electric field effect of the film was clearly observed. This suggests that the density of mid-gap states in the film is low enough for the field effect to occur.
Some neuroimaging studies have supported the hypothesis of progressive brain changes after a first episode of psychosis. We aimed to determine whether (i) first-episode psychosis patients would exhibit more pronounced brain volumetric changes than controls over time and (ii) illness course/treatment would relate to those changes.
Longitudinal regional grey matter volume and ventricle:brain ratio differences between 39 patients with first-episode psychosis (including schizophrenia and schizophreniform disorder) and 52 non-psychotic controls enrolled in a population-based case-control study.
While there was no longitudinal difference in ventricle:brain ratios between first-episode psychosis subjects and controls, patients exhibited grey matter volume changes, indicating a reversible course in the superior temporal cortex and hippocampus compared with controls. A remitting course was related to reversal of baseline temporal grey matter deficits.
Our findings do not support the hypothesis of brain changes indicating a progressive course in the initial phase of psychosis. Rather, some brain volume abnormalities may be reversible, possibly associated with a better illness course.
Clay minerals are one of the most important components in soil for radiocesium sorption. There are many types of clay minerals in soil, and their capacities for cesium (Cs) sorption differ. However, the effects of differing clay mineral amounts and compositions on Cs sorption behavior have not been clarified yet. In this study, therefore, we studied Cs sorption on illite, kaolinite, and illite–kaolinite mixtures, carrying out batch sorption test and sequential extractions to investigate Cs sorption mechanisms. The amount of sorbed Cs in the mixtures did not depend on the illite content, but the amount of exchangeable Cs decreased as the illite content increased. Conversely, the amount of fixed Cs in the mixtures increased with increasing illite content. These results suggest that the distribution of Cs sorption between ion exchange sites and fixed sites may be dependent on the illite/kaolinite ratio. In addition, we can estimate the amount of sorbed Cs in an illite-kaolinite mixture from the amounts of sorbed Cs in illite and in kaolinite, and the abundance ratio of each clay mineral in the clay mixture. This is basic knowledge needed for long-term assessment of Cs mobility in soil.