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With the recent discovery of a dozen dusty star-forming galaxies and around 30 quasars at z > 5 that are hyper-luminous in the infrared (μ LIR > 1013 L⊙, where μ is a lensing magnification factor), the possibility has opened up for SPICA, the proposed ESA M5 mid-/far-infrared mission, to extend its spectroscopic studies toward the epoch of reionisation and beyond. In this paper, we examine the feasibility and scientific potential of such observations with SPICA’s far-infrared spectrometer SAFARI, which will probe a spectral range (35–230 μm) that will be unexplored by ALMA and JWST. Our simulations show that SAFARI is capable of delivering good-quality spectra for hyper-luminous infrared galaxies at z = 5 − 10, allowing us to sample spectral features in the rest-frame mid-infrared and to investigate a host of key scientific issues, such as the relative importance of star formation versus AGN, the hardness of the radiation field, the level of chemical enrichment, and the properties of the molecular gas. From a broader perspective, SAFARI offers the potential to open up a new frontier in the study of the early Universe, providing access to uniquely powerful spectral features for probing first-generation objects, such as the key cooling lines of low-metallicity or metal-free forming galaxies (fine-structure and H2 lines) and emission features of solid compounds freshly synthesised by Population III supernovae. Ultimately, SAFARI’s ability to explore the high-redshift Universe will be determined by the availability of sufficiently bright targets (whether intrinsically luminous or gravitationally lensed). With its launch expected around 2030, SPICA is ideally positioned to take full advantage of upcoming wide-field surveys such as LSST, SKA, Euclid, and WFIRST, which are likely to provide extraordinary targets for SAFARI.
We examined observational characteristics of multi-phase turbulent flows in the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM) by calculating atomic and molecular carbon lines. Radiation field maps of C+, C0, and CO line emissions were generated by calculating the non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (nonLTE) level populations and high resolution hydrodynamic simulations of diffuse ISM. By analyzing synthetic line emission, we found a high ratio between the lines of high- and low-excitation energies in the diffuse multi-phase interstellar medium. Our results shows that simultaneous observations of the lines of warm- and cold-gas tracers will be useful in examining the thermal structure, and hence the origin of diffuse interstellar clouds.
The formation of stars in proto-galactic clouds can be viewed as two step processes i.e. the fragmentation of proto-galactic clouds and evolution of these fragments into stars. We consider here the latter process, the contraction of protosteller clouds (∼ 1M⊙) which consist of primordial gas. We investigate cooling processes by calculating the radiative transfer of H2 rotational/vibrational lines. We consider clouds in hydrostatic equilibrium as initial conditions. Comparing two timescales, the freefall time and the timescale of quasi-static contraction (∼ tcool, the cooling time) of these clouds, we find that as the clouds contract, the ratio of two timescales tff/tqsc, i.e. the efficiency of cooling, becomes larger even under the existence of cold and opaque envelope. Especially for the fragments of primordial filamentary clouds (tff ∼ tqsc initially), they collapse dynamically in the freefall timescale. This efficiency of cooling is utterly peculiar to the line cooling.
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