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Trait-specific characterization of rice landraces has significant potential for germplasm management, varietal identification and mining of novel gene/allele for various traits. In the current study, we have characterized 98 unique rice landraces collected from coastal regions of India, affected by submergence and salinity, based on Sub1 and Saltol quantitative trait loci (QTL) linked microsatellite markers. Among these genotypes, four genotypes (IC536558, IC536559, IC536604 and IC536604-1) collected from Kerala and two genotypes (AC34902 and IC324589) collected from West Bengal were identified with tolerance to submergence and salinity stress. A high level of genetic diversity of He = 0.349 and 0.529 at Sub1 and Saltol QTL region was detected by QTL-linked microsatellite markers, respectively. At Sub1 region one genotype, AC34902, was detected with maximum allelic similarity with FR13A, a known submergence tolerant variety. Besides, five genotypes (IC211188-1, IC536604-1, IC536604, IC536558 and IC536559) showed comparatively close genetic relationship with the salt tolerant variety FL478 for Saltol QTL and were clustered together in the neighbour joining dendrogram. Considering the haplotype structure, five genotypes (IC203801, IC203778, IC324584, IC413608 and IC413638) were identified which did not contain any common allele similar to FR13A but were still tolerant to submergence. These individuals need further characterization for identification of new alleles responsible for their tolerance.
Background: Microvascular decompression (MVD) is commonly used in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia with positive clinical outcomes. Fully endoscopic microvascular decompression (E-MVD) has been proposed as a minimally invasive, effective alternative, but a comparative review of the two approaches in the literature has not been conducted. Methods: We performed a meta-analysis comparing patient outcome rates and complications for both techniques. From a pool of 1,039 studies, 22 articles were selected for review: 12 open MVD and 10 E-MVD. The total number of patients was 6,734. Results: Good pain relief was achieved in 81% of MVD and 88% of E-MVD patients, with a mean recurrence rate of 14% and 9% respectively. Average rates of complications in MVD versus E-MVD included facial paresis or weakness, 9%, 3%; -hearing loss, 4%, 1%; cerebrospinal leak, both 3%; cerebellar damage and infection, 2%, <1%; and mortality <1%, 0% respectively. Conclusions: The reviewed literature revealed similar clinical outcomes with respect to pain relief for both approaches. Recurrence rate and incidence of complications, notably facial paresis and hearing loss were higher for MVD. We concluded that E-MVD appears to offer at least as good a surgical outcome as MVD, with possibly a shorter operative time, smaller craniectomy and lower recurrence rates.
Background: Multiple modalities have been used in the treatment of syringomyelia, including direct drainage, shunting into peritoneal, pleural and subarachnoid spaces. The authors report their experience of surgical treatment of syringomyelia in a minimally invasive fashion. Methods: We conducted a single-center retrospective chart review on our syringomyelia cases treated with minimally invasively using Metrx Quadrant retractor system since January 2011. Lateral fluoroscopy was used to guide the placement of the retractor onto the lamina of the corresponding level. This was followed by laminectomy and a small durotomy. Once the syrinx cavity was identified and the proximal end of the tubing was inserted into the syrinx cavity, the tubing was tunneled into the pleural incision subcutaneously. Insertion of the pleural end of the shunt was performed under the microscope, with removal of a small amount of the rib at its upper edge. Results: 10 procedures were performed in 7 patients by the senior author. Etiologies of syringomyelia included Chiari malformation, trauma, diastematomyelia and kyphoscoliosis. All patients improved neurologically. No patients had immediate postoperative complications. One patient underwent two revisions of syringopleural shunts due to multilobulated nature of syringomyelia. Conclusions: Our case series presents a novel, minimally invasive technique for shunting of syringomyelia with results comparable to open procedures.
Background: A surgical technique for foramen magnum decompression of Chiari malformation I in 11 patients is described. Methods: We used minimally invasive tubular retractors (METRx Quadrant) attached to a flexible arm to keep the retractor in a fixed position, while allowing flexible angulation under fluoroscopic guidance. Despite the small surgical opening, this approach allowed access to a wide working area, minimized soft tissue exposure, and optimized extent of decompression. For some patients, only the outer layer of dura was opened, but in cases where clinically indicated, a duraplasty was performed. Results: Postoperative CT head demonstrated satisfactory bony removal, and MRI with CSF flow study showed restoration, or significant improvement to CSF flow around the foramen magnum. There was a low incidence of post-operative complications, and the average length of hospital stay was around 1 day (1.2). For 10 out of 11 patients; their symptoms completely resolved on last follow-up, and for those who had syringomyelia, they demonstrated a radiological evidence of syrinx reduction or resolution. Conclusions: Based on our experience with this technique in foramen magnum decompression of Chiari malformation I, minimally invasive tubular retractor is a useful tool, providing the surgeon with enhanced visualization of the operative field, while reducing potential damage to tissue, and optimizing surgical outcomes.
A total of 326 pearl millet accessions selected for fodder traits from the world collection at ICRISAT genebank, India were evaluated in rainy, postrainy and summer seasons to identify promising sources for fodder yield. In rainy season, majority of accessions grew significantly tall, produced thick stems, long and broad leaves compared with postrainy and summer seasons. Total tillers per plant were significantly more in rainy and summer seasons than in postrainy season. Significant (P = 0.05) positive correlations were observed among all traits in all seasons except total tillers, which showed significant negative correlation with all other traits but for a few cases. Accessions of cluster 1 flowered early and produced more tillers per plant, while those of cluster 3 flowered late, grew tall, produced thick stems, more leaves per plant, which were long and broad. Promising sources identified include IP 11839 and IP 11840 for plant height and number of leaves per plant, IP 15710, IP 15735 and IP 15752 for stem thickness and leaf width, and IP 3628, IP 15285, IP 15288, IP 15302, IP 15342, IP 15351, IP 15290, IP 20347 and IP 20350 for total tillers per plant. Further testing of these sources of fodder traits at different locations will be very useful.
The genebank at ICRISAT, India that serves as a world repository for sorghum germplasm conserves 39,234 accessions from 93 countries, including 6249 from seven South Asian countries: Afghanistan (6), Bangladesh (9), India (6101), the Maldives (10), Nepal (8), Pakistan (90) and Sri Lanka (25). A total of 5340 georeferenced accessions were used to identify gaps, and 5322 accessions that were characterized at ICRISAT were used to assess the diversity in the collection. Accessions of basic races varied widely than those of intermediate races for flowering in the postrainy season, plant height in both rainy and postrainy seasons, panicle exsertion, panicle length and width, seed size and 100 seed weight. Landraces from India were late flowering, tall and produced stout panicles and larger seeds. Landraces from Pakistan flowered early in both seasons and produced stout panicles and those from Sri Lanka were late flowering and tall in both seasons, produced more basal tillers and stout panicles. A total of 110 districts in 20 provinces of India, 13 districts in three provinces of Pakistan, three districts in Bangladesh and five districts in four provinces of Sri Lanka were identified as geographical gaps. Sorghum bicolor subsp. verticilliflorum, S. halepense and S. propinquum were identified as taxonomic gaps in the collection. Therefore, it is suggested to explore the districts identified as gaps to enrich the variability in the world collection of sorghum at ICRISAT.
The world collection of pearl millet at ICRISAT genebank includes 19,696 landraces. Passport and characterization data of 2,929 accessions belonging to 89 named landraces originating in 15 countries of Africa was used to study the adoption pattern and genetic potential. Out of 89 named landraces under study, 71 were grown in one country, 11 in two countries, six in three countries and one in four countries. Latitude and prevailing climate at collection sites were found as the important determinants of cultivation pattern of landraces. A hierarchical cluster analysis using 12 agronomic traits resulted in five clusters. Cluster 1 for late flowering, short height in rainy season, high tillering and thin panicles; cluster 2 for early flowering; cluster 3 for stout panicles in both the seasons and larger seeds and cluster 5 for longer panicles in both seasons, were found as promising sources. IP 8957, IP 8958, IP 8964 of Iniadi landrace for short height, downy mildew and rust resistance and high seed iron and zinc contents; IP 17521 of Gnali (106.9 ppm) and IP 11523 of Idiyouwe (106.5 ppm) for high seed iron content; IP 17518 of Gnali (79.1 ppm) and IP 11535 of Iniadi (78.4 ppm) for high seed zinc content were the important sources. All accessions of Raa for high seed protein content (>15%) and those of Enele for drought tolerance, were found to be promising sources. Further evaluation of promising sources identified in this study is needed for enhanced utilization of germplasm in pearl millet improvement.
To assess trends in nutrient intakes and nutritional status of rural adult women (≥18–60 years) and the association of sociodemographic characteristics with overweight/obesity.
Community-based cross-sectional studies carried out during 1975–79 to 2011–12 by the National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau (NNMB) were used. Anthropometric measurements such as height, weight and waist circumference, carried out during the surveys, were used. Association and logistic regression analyses between sociodemographic characteristics and overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity were conducted using a complex samples procedure.
Ten NNMB states of India.
Non-pregnant and non-lactating rural women aged ≥18–60 years covered during the above periods from ten states in India.
The prevalence of chronic energy deficiency has declined from 52 % during 1975–79 to 34 % during 2011–12, while that of overweight/obesity has increased from 7 % to 24 % during the same period. Median intakes of most of the nutrients have increased over the same period, although they were below recommended levels. The chance of overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity was significantly (P<0·01) higher among women aged 40–60 years, those belonging to Christian religion and other backward communities, women living in pucca houses, literate women, women engaged in service and business, and those having higher per capita income.
Prevalence of chronic energy deficiency has declined significantly; however, overweight/obesity has increased during the same period. This increase in overweight/obesity may be attributed to increased consumption of fatty foods, sedentary lifestyle and improved socio-economic status. There is a need to educate the community about regular physical exercise, low intakes of fats and oils, and a balanced diet.
The genebank at the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), Patancheru, India holds a collection of 542 accessions from the Caribbean and Central American (CCA) regions, of which 424 were evaluated for eight qualitative and 17 quantitative traits at ICRISAT farm. A hierarchical cluster analysis was performed using the scores of the first nine principal components that resulted in four clusters. The accessions of these four clusters exhibited the following good characteristics: cluster 1 had high pod-bearing length and high seed protein content; those of cluster 2 had high degree of branching, large number of pods per plant and high seed yield per plant; those of cluster 3 had long pods; and those of cluster 4 had larger seeds. In the whole collection of accessions, diversity was found to be maximum (H′ = 0.630+0.026) for plant height and minimum for tertiary branches per plant (H′ = 0.259+0.026). The highest correlation coefficient was observed between racemes per plant and pods per plant (r= 0.914) followed by between pods per plant and seed yield per plant (r= 0.744), and between shelling percentage and the harvest index (r= 0.703). In view of the poor representation of the world collection of pigeonpea (13,771 accessions) from the CCA regions, launching of collection missions in these countries has been suggested to fill gaps and increase the variability. Multi-location evaluation of the collections for agronomic traits at potential locations in the CCA regions and systematic evaluation for nutritional traits and resistance to biotic and abiotic stress could result in the identification of useful genotypes, particularly vegetable types, for use in breeding programmes to develop high-yielding cultivars as well as to release as varieties in these regions.
Crop biofortification is increasingly being recognized as a cost-effective and sustainable approach to address the widespread micronutrient malnutrition arising from Fe and Zn deficiencies. Pearl millet as a cereal crop species has higher Fe density than all other major cereals. Earlier studies in pearl millet have shown that breeding lines, hybrid parents, improved populations and composites having high Fe and Zn densities were often based largely or entirely on iniadi pearl millet germplasm. In an attempt to identify additional sources of high Fe density in this group of germplasm, 297 accessions were screened using Perl's Prussian Blue staining, of which 191 accessions (118 from Togo, 62 from Ghana and 11 from Burkina Faso) were re-evaluated during the 2010 rainy and 2012 summer seasons using the inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy method. On the basis of the mean performance over the two seasons (environments), large variability was observed for both Fe (51–121 mg/kg) and Zn (46–87 mg/kg) densities. There was a highly significant and positive correlation between the two micronutrients (r= 0.77, P< 0.01). Of these re-evaluated accessions, 49% had higher Fe density than the high-Fe control commercial cultivar ICTP 8203 (81 mg/kg), and most of these accessions also had Zn density ≥ 61 mg/kg (59 mg/kg for ICTP 8203). A total of 27 accessions (20 from Togo and seven from Ghana) having a Fe density of 95–121 mg/kg (1 standard error of difference above that for ICTP 8203) and a Zn density of 59–87 mg/kg were selected as a valuable germplasm resource for genetic improvement of these two micronutrients in pearl millet.
The International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics conserves 335 accessions of Pennisetum glaucum subsp. monodii originated in 13 countries. In the present study, the collection was evaluated and assessed for diversity and geographical gaps. A wide variation was observed in the collection for total tillers per plant (16 to 609), productive tillers per plant (12 to 368), leaf length (21.3 to 58.8 cm) and leaf width (8.1 to 33.1 mm), indicating high fodder yield potential of the collection. The accessions of cluster 3 flowered late, grew tall with thick stems and long and broad leaves, and differed significantly from those of cluster 1 and cluster 2. The accessions of cluster 2 were found to be promising for tillering. The highly significant positive correlation (r= 0.944) between total and productive tillers per plant suggests that the selection for total tillers will result in selection for productive tillers. A total of 354 districts located in 86 provinces of eight countries in the primary centre of origin for pearl millet were identified as geographical gaps. The probability map generated using FloraMap in the present study matched quite closely to the origin of pearl millet, supporting the prediction of P.glaucum subsp. monodii occurrence in the primary centre of diversity for pearl millet. The high fodder yield potential of P.glaucum subsp. monodii germplasm and low intensity of collection in countries under study suggest the need for launching germplasm collection missions, exclusively for pearl millet wild relatives to fill taxonomic and geographical gaps in the collection.
A tall waterhemp population from Missisippi was suspected to be resistant to glyphosate. Glyphosate dose response experiments resulted in GR50 (dose required to reduce plant growth by 50%) values of 1.28 and 0.28 kg ae ha−1 glyphosate for the glyphosate-resistant (GR) and -susceptible (GS) populations, respectively, indicating a five-fold resistance. The absorption pattern of 14C-glyphosate between the GR and GS populations was similar up to 24 h after treatment (HAT). Thereafter, the susceptible population absorbed more glyphosate (55 and 49% of applied) compared to the resistant population (41 and 40% of applied) by 48 and 72 HAT, respectively. Treatment of a single leaf in individual plants with glyphosate at 0.84 kg ha−1, in the form of 10 1-µl droplets, provided greater control (85 vs. 29%) and shoot fresh weight reduction (73 vs. 34% of nontreated control) of the GS plants compared to the GR plants, possibly indicating a reduced movement of glyphosate in the GR plants. The amount of 14C-glyphosate that translocated out of the treated leaves of GR plants (20% of absorbed at 24 HAT and 23% of absorbed at 48 HAT) was significantly lower than the GS plants (31% of absorbed at 24 HAT and 32% of absorbed at 48 HAT). A potential difference in shikimate accumulation between GR and GS populations at different concentrations of glyphosate was also studied in vitro. The IC50 (glyphosate concentration required to cause shikimate accumulation at 50% of peak levels measured) values for the GR and GS populations were 480 and 140 µM of glyphosate, respectively, resulting in more shikimate accumulation in the GS than the GR population. Sequence analysis of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS), the target site of glyphosate, from GR and GS plants identified a consistent single nucleotide polymorphism (T/C, thymine/cytosine) between GR/GS plants, resulting in a proline to serine amino acid substitution at position 106 in the GR population. The GR and GS plants contained equal genomic copy number of EPSPS, which was positively correlated with EPSPS gene expression. Thus, glyphosate resistance in the tall waterhemp population from Mississippi is due to both altered target site and nontarget site mechanisms. This is the first report of an altered EPSPS-based resistance in a dicot weed species that has evolved resistance to glyphosate.
The genebank at ICRISAT, Patancheru, India conserves a total of 19,063 pearl millet landraces from latitudes ranging from 33.00° in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) to 34.37° in the Northern Hemisphere (NH). In the present study, the NH was found to be the major region for growing pearl millet landraces (80.5%). More landraces were found at lower latitudes ( < 20°) in both hemispheres than at higher latitudes. The latitude range of 10°–15° in the NH and 15°–20° in the SH were found to be important source regions for the prevalence of pearl millet, with 39.6% and 13.1% in the world collection of landraces, respectively. Landraces from lower-latitude regions on either side of the equator varied widely for all traits. Landraces from the 5°–10°N latitude region flowered late and grew tall in the rainy and post-rainy seasons and produced more tillers. Landraces from the 10°–15°N latitude region produced few tillers and had long and thick panicles with larger seeds. Long-bristled bird-resistant landraces were considerable at latitudes of 10°–15°S and 20°–25°S. The minimum temperature at the collection sites was found to be one of the important factors for determining the patterns of the prevalence of pearl millet across the latitudes. Late-maturing, tall and high-tillering landraces from lower-latitude regions were better sources for fodder production. Early-maturing landraces producing long and thick panicles with large seeds from mid-latitude regions (15°–20°) in both hemispheres were useful for developing high-yielding cultivars. Using the latitudinal patterns of diversity in pearl millet landraces, missions may be launched to explore high-diversity, under-collected and threatened areas for the collection of materials of interest at latitudes of 15°–20°.
In view of the mandate from the World Health Organization (WHO) for developing novel drug candidates against human lymphatic filariasis, dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) inhibitors are explored as potential antifilarial agents. The in vitro biological evaluation of an in-house library of 12 diverse antifolate compounds with 2,4-diaminopyrimidine and 2,4-diamino-s-triazine structural features against Brugia malayi is reported. To confirm the DHFR inhibitory potential of these compounds, reversal studies using folic acid and folinic acid were undertaken. Inhibition of DHFR can induce apoptosis; in this light, preliminary evidence of apoptosis by test compounds was detected using ethidium bromide–acridine orange staining and the poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibition assay. Among the evaluated compounds, 3 showed significant activity against both microfilariae and adult worms. The effects of 2 of these compounds were mostly reversed by folic acid, validating DHFR inhibitory activity. Partial reversal of the effect of 2 compounds by folinic acid and non-reversal of the effect of the third compound both by folic and folinic acids are discussed. This study opens new avenues for the discovery of lead molecules by exploiting the folate pathway against one of the major neglected tropical diseases, filariasis.
The International Crops Research Institute for the semi-Arid Tropics Genebank at Patancheru, India holds the world's largest collection of 22,211 pearl millet germplasm accessions from 50 countries including 4488 landraces from 16 East and Southern African (ESA) countries. Gap analysis using FloraMap software and 3750 georeferenced pearl millet germplasm accessions from ESA countries revealed 34 districts located in 18 provinces of four East African countries and 76 districts located in 34 provinces of seven Southern African countries as geographical gaps. Analysis of characterization data using DIVA-GIS software showed 11 districts of seven provinces in Sudan and Uganda and 58 districts of 20 provinces of seven countries in Southern Africa as gaps in diversity for important morphoagronomic traits. The following districts were identified as gaps common to geographic area and diversity for some or the other traits: Amuria district in Soroti province of Uganda; Mpwapwa in Dodoma province of Tanzania; Mahalapye in Centre province and Kgatleng in Kgatleng province of Botswana; Lalomo in Southern province of Zambia; and Motoko, Mudzi and Wedza in the province of Mashonaland East; Makoni in Manikaland; Gutu and Chivi in Masvingo; Gwanda and Bulalimamangwe in Metabeland south; Hwange and Nkayi in Metabeland north; and Kwe Kwe in Midlands of Zimbabwe. For a successful germplasm collection mission to fill the gaps identified, planning should be made in advance of collaboration and consultation with National Agricultural Systems, local government officials and extension officers. It is suggested to collect the complete passport data including georeference information while collecting the germplasm.
In situ powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies on 3D micro-crystalline tin (II) sulfide (SnS) were carried out at different temperatures. While increasing temperature, the crystal structure of SnS remains stable as orthorhombic, whereas its lattice parameters and unit-cell volume are considerably varied. Further, these 3D micro-crystalline structures have showed a negative thermal expansion along the a-axis and positive expansion along the b- and c-axes. However, the overall drop along the a-axis of SnS crystals is nearly equal to their expansion along the c-axis. The observed changes in the structural properties of SnS micro-crystallites with temperature are discussed and reported.
Greenhouse and laboratory studies were conducted to confirm and quantify glyphosate resistance, quantify pyrithiobac resistance, and investigate interaction between flumiclorac and glyphosate mixtures on control of Palmer amaranth from Mississippi. The GR50 (herbicide dose required to cause a 50% reduction in plant growth) values for two glyphosate-resistant biotypes, C1B1 and T4B1, and a glyphosate-susceptible (GS) biotype were 1.52, 1.3, and 0.09 kg ae ha−1 glyphosate, respectively. This indicated that the C1B1 and T4B1 biotypes were 17- and 14-fold resistant to glyphosate, respectively, compared with the GS biotype. The C1B1 and T4B1 biotypes were also resistant to pyrithiobac, an acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor, with GR50 values of 0.06 and 0.07 kg ai ha−1, respectively. This indicated that the C1B1 and T4B1 biotypes were 7- and 8-fold, respectively, more resistant to pyrithiobac compared with the GS biotype, which had a GR50 value of 0.009 kg ha−1. Flumiclorac was antagonistic to glyphosate by reducing glyphosate translocation. The C1B1 and T4B1 absorbed less glyphosate 48 h after treatment (HAT) compared with the GS biotype. The majority of the translocated glyphosate accumulated in the shoot above the treated leaf (that contains the apical meristem) in the GS biotype and in the shoot below the treated leaf in the resistant biotypes, C1B1 and T4B1, by 48 HAT. The C1B1 biotype accumulated negligible shikimate levels, whereas the T4B1 and GS biotypes recorded elevated levels of shikimate. Metabolism of glyphosate to aminomethylphosphonic acid was not detected in either of the resistant biotypes or the susceptible GS biotype. The above results confirm multiple resistance to glyphosate and pyrithiobac in Palmer amaranth biotypes from Mississippi and indicate that resistance to glyphosate is partly due to reduced absorption and translocation of glyphosate.
The ICRISAT genebank, Patancheru, India holds 22,211 pearl millet germplasm accessions from 50 countries, including 19,063 landraces. Among these, 15,904 landraces that were geo-referenced are either thermo-sensitive (52.5%), or photoperiod-sensitive (45.6%), or insensitive to both temperature and photoperiod (2%). Latitude ranges of 10–15°N with 39.6% and 15–20°S with 13.1% of total accessions are the important regions for pearl millet germplasm. A study on climate data of the germplasm collection sites revealed that most accessions from latitudes ranging from 10 to 20° on both sides of the equator were highly sensitive to longer photoperiod (>12.5 h) and/or lower temperature ( < 12°C). Accessions that originated in locations at higher latitudes (>20–35°) on both the hemispheres exhibited low sensitivity to both photoperiod and low temperature, as they were exposed to such climates during their evolution. The accessions that are insensitive to both photoperiod and temperature were few but they originated from locations spread across all latitudes, although the highest numbers were from mid-latitudes (15–20°) in both hemispheres. As germplasm accessions are sensitive to climatic variables such as temperature and photoperiod, recording of location-specific geo-reference data while collecting the germplasm, which can help to elucidate the sensitivity of accessions to temperature and photoperiod, is emphasized. Critical evaluation of photoperiod-sensitive accessions that are late flowering for forage production and the photoperiod-insensitive early-maturing accessions for grain production, multiple cropping and development of parental lines with synchronized flowering for the development of hybrids is suggested.