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The basal ganglia represents a key component of the pathophysiological model for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This brain region is part of several neural circuits, including the orbitofronto-striatal circuit and dorsolateral prefronto-striatal circuit. There are, however, no published studies investigating those circuits at a network level in non-medicated patients with OCD. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained from 20 non-medicated patients with OCD and 23 matched healthy volunteers. Voxelwise statistical parametric maps testing strength of functional connectivity of three striatal seed regions of interest (ROIs) with remaining brain regions were calculated and compared between groups. We performed additional correlation analyses between strength of connectivity and the severity scores for obsessive-compulsive symptoms, depression, and anxiety in the OCD group. Positive functional connectivity with the ventral striatum was significantly increased (Pcorrected <.05) in the orbitofrontal cortex, ventral medial prefrontal cortex and dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex of subjects with OCD. There was no significant correlation between measures of symptom severity and the strength of connectivity (Puncorrected <.001). This is the first study to investigate the corticostriatal connectivity in non-medicated patients with OCD. These findings provide the first direct evidence supporting a pathophysiological model involving basal ganglia circuitry in OCD.
The risk of malaria outbreak surfaced in Vanuatu after Tropical Cyclone (TC) Pam in March 2015. In June and July 2015 we conducted malariometric surveys on the islands of Tanna, Aneityum, and Erromango in Tafea Province, where malaria elimination had been targeted, to determine if malaria incidence had increased after TC Pam. No Plasmodium infection was detected by microscopy and PCR in 3009 survey participants. Only 6·3% (190/3007) of participants had fever. Spleen rates in children aged ⩽12 years from Aneityum and Tanna were low, at 3·6% (14/387) and 5·3% (27/510), respectively. Overall bed net use was high at 72·8% (2175/2986); however, a significantly higher (P < 0·001) proportion of participants from Aneityum (85·9%, 796/927) reported net use than those from Tanna (67·1%, 751/1119) and Erromango (66·8%, 628/940). A recent decrease in malaria incidence in Tafea Province through comprehensive intervention measures had reduced the indigenous parasite reservoir and limited the latter's potential to spur an outbreak after TC Pam. The path towards malaria elimination in Tafea Province was not adversely affected by TC Pam.
By performing a global magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) simulation for the Milky Way with an axisymmetric gravitational potential, we propose that spatially dependent amplification of magnetic fields possibly explains the observed noncircular motion of the gas in the Galactic centre (GC) region. The radial distribution of the rotation frequency in the bulge region is not monotonic in general. The amplification of the magnetic field is enhanced in regions with stronger differential rotation, because magnetorotational instability and field-line stretching are more effective. The strength of the amplified magnetic field reaches ≳ 0.5 mG, and radial flows of the gas are excited by the inhomogeneous transport of angular momentum through turbulent magnetic field that is amplified in a spatially dependent manner. As a result, the simulated position-velocity diagram exhibits a time-dependent asymmetric parallelogram-shape owing to the intermittency of the magnetic turbulence; the present model provides a viable alternative to the bar-potential-driven model for the parallelogram shape of the central molecular zone. In addition, Parker instability (magnetic buoyancy) creates vertical magnetic structure, which would correspond to observed molecular loops, and frequently excited vertical flows. Furthermore, the time-averaged net gas flow is directed outward, whereas the flows are highly time dependent, which would contribute to the outflow from the bulge.
Various observations show peculiar features in the Galactic Center region, such as loops and filamentary structure. It is still unclear how such characteristic features are formed. Magnetic field is believed to play very important roles in the dynamics of gas in the Galaxy Center. Suzuki et al. (2015) performed a global magneto-hydrodynamical simulation focusing on the Galactic Center with an axisymmetric gravitational potential and claimed that non-radial motion is excited by magnetic activity. We further analyzed their simulation data and found that vertical motion is also excited by magnetic activity. In particular, fast down flows with speed of ~100 km/s are triggered near the footpoint of magnetic loops that are buoyantly risen by Parker instability. These downward flows are accelerated by the vertical component of the gravity, falling along inclined field lines. As a result, the azimuthal and radial components of the velocity are also excited, which are observed as high velocity features in a simulated position-velocity diagram. Depending on the viewing angle, these fast flows will show a huge variety of characteristic features in the position-velocity diagram.
The superbubble (SB) 30 Dor C with the strong non-thermal X-ray emission is one of the best targets for study of the cosmic-ray (CR) acceleration. We investigated X-ray spectral properties of the SB with a high spatial resolution of ~10 pc. Consequently, the spectra in the east regions can be described with a combination of absorbed thermal and non-thermal models while the spectra in the west regions can be fitted with an absorbed non-thermal model. We found that the observed photon index and intensity in 2-10 keV show variations of 2.0-3.5 and (0.6-8.0) × 10−7 erg s−1 cm−2 str−1, respectively. The results are possibly caused by the spatial variation of the CR acceleration efficiency and/or the circumstellar environment.
We carried out large–scale (4 × 2 degree) CO multi–line observations toward the central molecular zone (CMZ) in the Galactic center (GC) with the NANTEN2 4m telescope and mapped several diffuse molecular features located at relatively high Galactic latitudes above 0°.6. These high–latitude features are composed of diffuse molecular halo gas and molecular filaments according to their morphological aspects. Their high velocities and high intensity ratios between 12CO J = (2−1) and J = (1−0) clearly indicate their location in the GC, and their total mass amount to ∼10% of that of the CMZ. We discuss that magnetic field is a possible mechanism of these high–latitude molecular features lifting up toward high galactic latitude.
In this study, in order to investigate biocompatibility of nitrogen-doped hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H:N) film coating segmented polyurethane (SPU) scaffold fiber sheet (a-C:H:N-Scaffold) in in-vitro test, mouse fibroblasts (NIH 3T3) cells were grown on the a-C:H:N-Scaffold. The cell behavior was monitored by time-lapse imaging system. Additionally, the a-C:H:N-Scaffold was implanted at partial aorta descendens of a goat for 35 days. The surface morphology, composition, and wettability of the a-C:H:N-scaffold was estimated by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS), and contact angle measurement. In in-vitro test, it was observed that a-C:H:N film coating had a facilitatory effect on cell motility and cell growth. In in-vivo test, it was observed that the a-C:H:N-Scaffold surface was uniformly covered by neointima. The a-C:H:N-Scaffold surface had no thrombus formation as an inflammatory reaction and it was shown that the a-C:H:N film coating had a good blood compatibility. These results suggest that a-C:H:N film coating has good cytocompatibility and blood compatibility and it is a promising approach for improvement of biocompatibility of biomaterial surfaces.
Arrays of CdTe nanowires have been grown on conductive, flexible Mo substrates by the vapor-liquid-solid technique. A method of forming the arrays on a largely continuous CdTe film is described. For producing nanowire solar cells, this structure provides the advantage of preventing shunts. Nanowires having diameters in the range 100-500 nm and lengths up to 100 μm were generated. The influence of growth temperature, time and pressure on the morphology of deposited layers was investigated, and a mechanism for the generation of layer/nanowire combinations is postulated. Characterization by SEM, TEM and low temperature photoluminescence is presented.
The cumulus–oocyte–complexes (COCs) recovery rates with respect to reproductive status per sei (Balaenoptera borealis) and Bryde's (B. edeni) whales were determined in Experiment 1. The number of COCs recovered ranged from 16.0 to 30.6 and from 6.7 to 26.8 per sei and Bryde's whales, respectively. The effects of COCs grades and protein supplementation in embryo culture medium on development of in vitro fertilized (IVF) embryos were evaluated in sei and Bryde's whales in Experiment 2. The COCs were classified into either Grade A (COCs with five or more layers of compact cumulus cells) or Grade B (COCs with less than five layers of compact or expanded cumulus cells) before being cultured for IVM. The cleavage (12.0 to 19.5%), 4-cell (8.0 to 12.0%) and 8-cell (4.0 to 8.0%) formation rates in sei whales did not vary significantly between embryos derived from either grade A or B oocytes and between embryos cultured in either fetal whale serum (FWS)- or bovine serum albumin (BSA)-supplemented medium. The cleavage (4.0 to 14.8%), 4-cell (0.0 to 7.5%) and 8-cell (0.0 to 2.6%) formation rates in Bryde's whales did not vary significantly between embryos derived from either grade A or B oocytes and between embryos cultured in either FWS- or BSA-supplemented medium. The grade B oocytes cultured in FWS-supplemented medium developed to morula stage (1.1%) in sei whales. In conclusion, the present study indicates that IVF in sei whales is possible to achieve cleaved embryos developing to morula stage. This is the first in vitro embryo production attempt in sei and Bryde's whales.
Early results from the SAGE-SMC (Surveying the Agents of Galaxy Evolution in the tidally-disrupted, low-metallicity Small Magellanic Cloud) Spitzer legacy program are presented. These early results concentrate on the SAGE-SMC MIPS observations of the SMC Tail region. This region is the high H i column density portion of the Magellanic Bridge adjacent to the SMC Wing. We detect infrared dust emission and measure the gas-to-dust ratio in the SMC Tail and find it similar to that of the SMC Body. In addition, we find two embedded cluster regions that are resolved into multiple sources at all MIPS wavelengths.
The Microlensing Observations in Astrophysics (MOA) is a microlensing survey conducted at Mt. John Observatory in New Zealand. We searched transiting planet candidates from the MOA-I Galactic bulge data, which have been obtained with a 61cm B&C telescope from 2000 to 2005 for a microlensing search. Although this survey data were dedicated to microlensing, they are also quite useful for searching transiting objects because of the large number of stars monitored (~7 million) and the long span of the survey (~6 years). From our analysis, we found 58 transiting planet candidates. We are planning to follow up these candidates with high-precision spectroscopic and photometric observations for further selection, toward the detection of planets by radial velocity observations.
Dome Fuji is potentially one of the best astronomical sites in Antarctic plateau. We have a plan to build a 2-m class infrared telescope at Dome Fuji, and have been evaluating the site since the 2006/2007 Antarctic summer. We present the outline of a 2-m class telescope project and some results of our SODAR measurements.
In this study, we focus on effect of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating on scaffold for tissue engineering. DLC film was deposited on segmented polyurethane (SPU) scaffold sheet which consists of micro SUP fibers. Structural and compositional effects of the DLC film coating were investigated on cell growth as an investigation of biological response. The surface composition, morphology, structures, and wettability of the DLC film coating was estimated by using X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Ar-laser Raman spectrophotometer (Raman), and contact angle measurement. And then, human umbilical vein endothelial (HUV-EC-C) cells were grown on the DLC coated scaffold sheet. The results presented here suggest that DLC film coating is promising approach to improve biological for tissue engineering.
Interspecies microinsemination assay was applied to examine the ability of minke whale haploid spermatogenic cells to induce Ca2+ oscillations and oocyte activation. Populations of round spermatids (RS), early-stage elongating spermatids (e-ES), late-stage elongating spermatids (1-ES) and testicular spermatozoa (TS) were cryopreserved in the presence of 7.5% glycerol on board ship in the Antarctic Ocean. Repetitive increases of intracellular Ca2+ concentration occurred in 0, 65, 81 and 96% of BDF1 mouse oocytes injected with the postthaw RS, e-ES, 1-ES and TS, respectively. A normal pattern of the Ca2+ oscillations was observed in 26–47% of the responding oocytes. Most oocytes that exhibited Ca2+ oscillations, regardless of the oscillation pattern, resumed meiosis (83–94%). These results indicate that whale spermatogenic cells acquire SOAF activity, which is closely related to their Ca2+ oscillation-inducing ability at the relatively early stage of spermiogenesis.
Thermoporometry was employed to monitor the mesopore evolution in wet, drying and heat-treatment stages of monolithic macro/mesoporous silica with SBA-15 like structure. Direct comparison of mesopores in wet state was only possible with the samples extracted with sulfuric acid. In good agreement with the preceding study, the sulfuric acid not only removed the surfactant but also modified the silica gel network into that with reduced amount of micropores and increased stability against the drying stress. Thermoporometry revealed that the structural evolution takes place completely in the wet condition, which accompanies a decrease in the thickness of non-freezable water.
The new molecular image obtained by NANTEN telescope in the galactic center has revealed the existence of the two loop like structures, loop 1 and loop 2, which have never been seen before toward l = 355° to 358°. The velocities of loop 1 and loop 2 are −180 to −90 km s−1 and −90 and −40 km s−1, respectively, and these two loops have strong velocity gradients. The foot points of the loops show a very broad linewidth of ~40 to 80 km s−1 whose large velocity spans are characteristic of the molecular gas near the galactic center. Therefore, we classified the loops as being located in the galactic center and adopt a distance of 8.5 kpc. Then, the projected lengths of loop 1 and loop 2 were estimated as ~500 and ~300 pc, respectively and velocity gradients corresponds to ~80 km s−1 per 250 pc along loop 1 and ~60 km s−1 per 150 pc along loop 2. The heights of these loops are also estimated as ~220 to ~300 pc from the galactic plane, significantly higher than the typical scale height in the nuclear disk.
Diamond-like carbon (DLC) film was deposited uniformly on an irregular structure such as a polyurethane artificial heart blood pump using a special 3-dimensional type electrode. Process of applying the DLC film coating is accomplished by inserting a large number of small metallic balls (φ0.8 mm chromium balls). It is then possible to adjust the shape of the electrode in such a way that the DLC film coating can be applied to the irregular surface of the artificial heart. In investigating the availability of the electrode, under helium (He) plasma, the plasma states were measured using double probe analysis. Lateral profiles of the electron temperature were higher in the centre and decreased towards the edges of the electrode. On the other hand, the plasma density profiles were lower in the centre part than at the edges. The electrode kept ion sheath on the artificial heart blood pump's surface at self-bias voltage uniformly. The results were that the DLC film was deposited completely on the artificial heart blood pump at the film thickness of approximately 350 - 380 nm. Additionally the film structure was uniform.
Characterizations of transparent Schottky barrier GaN and AlGaN UV detectors in the vacuum UV (VUV) and soft X-ray (SX) region using synchrotron radiation are described. In the GaN UV detectors, the responsivity achieved about 0.05 A/W at 95 eV (13 nm). Thus, their device performance is shown between 3.4 and 100 eV (10 and 360 nm). Furthermore, the high responsivity spectra were realized by using AlGaN Schottky UV detectors consisting of Al0.5Ga0.5N on AlN epitaxial layer.