To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder have increased risk of coronary artery disease.
To investigate long-term outcomes of patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder and coronary artery disease after coronary artery bypass grafting surgery (CABG).
Data from patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder (n = 126) were retrospectively compared with propensity-matched (1:20) control patients without schizophrenia spectrum disorder (n = 2520) in a multicentre study in Finland. All patients were treated with CABG. The median follow-up was 7.1 years. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality.
Patients with diagnosed schizophrenia spectrum disorder had an elevated risk of 10-year mortality after CABG, compared with control patients (42.7 v. 30.3%; hazard ratio 1.56; 95% CI 1.13–2.17; P = 0.008). Schizophrenia spectrum diagnosis was associated with a higher risk of major adverse cardiovascular events during follow-up (49.9 v. 32.6%, subdistribution hazard ratio 1.59; 95% CI 1.18–2.15; P = 0.003). Myocardial infarction (subdistribution hazard ratio 1.86; P = 0.003) and cardiovascular mortality (subdistribution hazard ratio 1.65; P = 0.017) were more frequent in patients with versus those without schizophrenia spectrum disorder, but there was no difference for stroke. Psychiatric ward admission, antipsychotic medication, antidepressant use and benzodiazepine use before CABG were not associated with outcome differences. After CABG, patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder received statin therapy less often and had lower doses; the use of other cardiovascular medications was similar between schizophrenia spectrum and control groups.
Patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder have higher long-term risks of death and major adverse cardiovascular events after CABG. The results underline the vulnerability of these patients and highlight the importance of intensive secondary prevention and risk factor optimisation.
The aim was to determine the rate of dissociative disorders among psychiatric in- (n = 34) and out-patients (n = 37) and to compare the rate to that of nonclinical subjects (n = 297). Dissociative disorders (17% of patients) could be grouped according to the severity of the symptoms and their relation to affective disorders.
Risk of psychosis is defined by the presence of positive psychotic-like symptoms, by subtle self-perceived cognitive and perceptual deficiencies, or by decreased functioning with familial risk of psychosis. We studied the associations of psychiatric outpatients' self-reported functioning and interpersonal relationships with vulnerability to and risk of psychosis.
A total of 790 young patients attending psychiatric outpatient care completed the PROD screen [Heinimaa M, Salokangas RKR, Ristkari T, Plathin M, Huttunen J, Ilonen T, et al. PROD-screen – a screen for prodromal symptoms of psychosis. Int J Meth Psychiatr Res 2003;12:92–04.], including questions on functioning, interpersonal relationships and subtle specific (psychotic-like) and non-specific symptoms. Vulnerability to psychosis was assessed employing the patient's written descriptions of specific symptoms. Of the patients vulnerable to psychosis, those at current risk of psychosis were assessed using the Bonn Scale for Assessment of Basic Symptoms [Schultze-Lutter F, Klosterkötter J. Bonn scale for assessment of basic symptoms – prediction list, BSABS-P. Cologne: University of Cologne; 2002] and the Structured Interview for Positive symptoms [Miller TJ, McGlashan TH, Rosen JL, Somjee L, Markovich PJ, Stein K, et al. Prospective diagnosis of the initial prodrome for schizophrenia based on the structured interview for prodromal syndromes: preliminary evidence of interrater reliability and predictive validity. Am J Psychiatry 2002;159:863–65.].
In all, 219 patients vulnerable to and 55 patients at current risk of psychosis were identified. Vulnerability to psychosis was associated with all items of functioning and interpersonal relationships. Current risk of psychosis, however, was associated only with the subjectively reported negative attitude of others. Negative attitude of others was also associated with feelings of reference at both vulnerability and risk levels.
The subjective experience of negative attitude of others towards oneself may be an early indicator of psychotic development.
Psychotic depression (PD) is heavily understudied despite high mortality and the severe course of illness. A majority of the studies conducted so far are also largely based on selected clinical samples. The aim of this study was to examine the clinical characteristics of PD in a representative prospective birth cohort sample.
The Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 is a well-known prospective population-based cohort including 12 058 people followed since mid-pregnancy. We identified 55 individuals with PD, analysed their characteristics and compared them with schizophrenia (SZ), non-psychotic depression (NPD), psychotic bipolar disorder (PBD) and other psychoses (PNOS).
The life-time prevalence of stable (no conversion to schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or schizoaffective disorder) PD was 0.5%. PD subjects were older than SZ and PNOS subjects during the first psychotic episode and compared to SZ, more often female. PD required hospitalization and transition to disability pension more often than NPD, but less often than SZ. Comorbid alcohol abuse disorder (44%) and personality disorder (40%) were highly common in PD. PNOS had a similar occupational outcome than PD but hospitalization rate was lower in the PNOS group. PBD and PD had mostly comparable outcomes.
Our findings in a naturalistic cohort support the notion that the course of illness in PD is mostly similar to that of PBD, it is less severe than in schizophrenia, but worse than in non-psychotic depression. PD seems to have high psychiatric comorbidity.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.