To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The mobile screening test system for screening mild cognitive impairment (mSTS-MCI) was developed for clinical use. However, the clinical usefulness of mSTS-MCI to detect elderly with MCI from those who are cognitively healthy has yet to be validated. Moreover, the comparability between this system and traditional screening tests for MCI has not been evaluated.
The purpose of this study was to examine the validity and reliability of the mSTS-MCI and confirm the cut-off scores to detect MCI.
The data were collected from 107 healthy elderly people and 74 elderly people with MCI. Concurrent validity was examined using the Korean version of Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA-K) as a gold standard test, and test–retest reliability was investigated using 30 of the study participants at four-week intervals. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value (NPV) were confirmed through Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis, and the cut-off scores for elderly people with MCI were identified.
Concurrent validity showed statistically significant correlations between the mSTS-MCI and MoCA-K and test–rests reliability indicated high correlation. As a result of screening predictability, the mSTS-MCI had a higher NPV than the MoCA-K.
The mSTS-MCI was identified as a system with a high degree of validity and reliability. In addition, the mSTS-MCI showed high screening predictability, indicating it can be used in the clinical field as a screening test system for mild cognitive impairment.
This study examined changes in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and quality of care (QoC) as perceived by terminally ill cancer patients and a stratified set of HRQoL or QoC factors that are most likely to influence survival at the end of life (EoL).
We administered questionnaires to 619 consecutive patients immediately after they were diagnosed with terminal cancer by physicians at 11 university hospitals and at the National Cancer Center in Korea. Subjects were followed up over 161.2 person-years until their deaths. We measured HRQoL using the core 30-item European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire, and QoC using the Quality Care Questionnaire–End of Life (QCQ–EoL). We evaluated changes in HRQoL and QoC issues during the first three months after enrollment, performing sensitivity analysis by using data generated via four methods (complete case analysis, available case analysis, the last observation carried forward, and multiple imputation).
Emotional and cognitive functioning decreased significantly over time, while dyspnea, constipation, and pain increased significantly. Dignity-conserving care, care by healthcare professionals, family relationships, and QCQ–EoL total score decreased significantly. Global QoL, appetite loss, and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status (ECOG–PS) scores were significantly associated with survival.
Significance of results:
Future standardization of palliative care should be focused on assessment of these deteriorated types of quality. Accurate estimates of the length of life remaining for terminally ill cancer patients by such EoL-enhancing factors as global QoL, appetite loss, and ECOG–PS are needed to help patients experience a dignified and comfortable death.
Background: Highly educated participants with normal cognition show lower incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) than poorly educated participants, whereas longitudinal studies involving AD have reported that higher education is associated with more rapid cognitive decline. We aimed to evaluate whether highly educated amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) participants show more rapid cognitive decline than those with lower levels of education.
Methods: A total of 249 aMCI patients enrolled from 31 memory clinics using the standard assessment and diagnostic processes were followed with neuropsychological evaluation (duration 17.2 ± 8.8 months). According to baseline performances on memory tests, participants were divided into early-stage aMCI (−1.5 to −1.0 standard deviation (SD)) and late-stage aMCI (below −1.5 SD) groups. Risk of AD conversion and changes in neuropsychological performances according to the level of education were evaluated.
Results: Sixty-two patients converted to AD over a mean follow-up of 1.43 years. The risk of AD conversion was higher in late-stage aMCI than early-stage aMCI. Cox proportional hazard models showed that aMCI participants, and late-stage aMCI participants in particular, with higher levels of education had a higher risk of AD conversion than those with lower levels of education. Late-stage aMCI participants with higher education showed faster cognitive decline in language, memory, and Clinical Dementia Rating Sum of Boxes (CDR-SOB) scores. On the contrary, early-stage aMCI participants with higher education showed slower cognitive decline in MMSE and CDR-SOB scores.
Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the protective effects of education against cognitive decline remain in early-stage aMCI and disappear in late-stage aMCI.
Decision making in an emotionally conflicting situation is important in social life. We aimed to address the similarity and disparity of neural correlates involved in processing ambivalent stimuli in patients with schizophrenia and patients with depression. Behavioral task-related hemodynamic responses were measured using [15O]H2O positron emission tomography (PET) in 12 patients with schizophrenia and 12 patients with depression. The task was a modified word-stem completion task, which was designed to evoke ambivalence in forced and non-forced choice conditions. The prefrontal cortex and the cerebellum were found to show increased activity in the healthy control group. In the schizophrenia group, activity in these two regions was negligible. In the depression group, the pattern of activity was altered and a functional compensatory recruitment of the inferior parietal regions was suggested. The prefrontal cortex seems to be associated with the cognitive control to resolve the conflict toward the ambivalent stimuli, whereas the cerebellum reflects the sustained working memory to search for compromise alternatives. The deficit of cerebellar activation in the schizophrenia group might underlie the inability to search and consider compromising responses for conflict resolution. (JINS, 2009, 15, 990–1001.)
Compared to plastic, from the view point of ultra low temperature poly-Si (ULTPS) processes for realizing flexible active matrix organic light emitting diode (AM-OLED) display, SSF offers high thermal resistance and chemical stability, and lithography stability. As SSF is stiffer than plastic film, SSF is expected to reduce stress which originates from difference in coefficient of thermal expansion. However, SSF substrate itself also bears surface roughness problem, which necessitates an appropriate planarization step. Also to fully integrate both the drive circuits and the pixel thin-film transistor(TFT)s in a monolithic complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology high mobility is required, calling for poly-Si usage.
We will deal with the planarization process, and then address various processing issues. Especially, we will demonstrate our successful SLS of Si on SSF substrates. Finally we show the device performances. All fabrication temperatures were kept below 200 oC to meet a ULTPS process.
Due to the rolling process for manufacturing foils, the SSF surface is rough. We have measured average roughness of 500 nm, respectively. With benzocyclobutene (BCB), we have successfully planarized the surface with average roughness was less than 0.5 nm.
Our TFT's active layer was obtained by laser crystallizing amorphous Si (a-Si) films. To obtain a high quality gate dielectric film, we formed a SiO2 film using an O2 plasma treatment on the surface of the poly-Si film and then deposited Al2O3 film by plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition. Then gate metal was deposited and patterned. Source and drain regions were p+ doped by ion implantation to form a self-aligned gate structure. We have used SiNx film as interlayer dielectrics.
Briefly we discuss a practical approach for realizing SLS on a SiO2 buffer. The Si-on-SiO2 layer stacking is energetically unstable. Should have not controlled the heat during laser crystallization, liquid Si would recede to expose the SiO2 layer. Dewetting is suppressed by adjusting the buffer density, and densifying the a-Si film. To implement the SLS, we have optimally conjugated the densities of the buffer film and the a-Si film to produce Si grains with sizes of ~6 ¥ìm on a BCB planarized SSF.
Our p-channel TFT transfer performance exhibits a field effect mobility (¥ì) of 95 cm2/Vs, a threshold voltage (Vt) of -3 V and a sub-threshold swing(S-S) of 0.5 V/dec.. The off-current level is ~ 10 pA at drain voltage (Vd) of -1V and the Ion/Ioff is 106 . Especially our stable Vt consents to the electrical stability for driving displays. This feature might be attributed to the improved interface between the active layer and the gate dielectrics by plasma oxidation.
We have studied the structural properties of hydrogenated carbon films deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). The substrate holder in reaction chamber could be biased and be heated. The Raman peak intensity at 1350 cm−1 was increased by reducing CH4 flow rate. The film structure changed from soft a-C:H to hard carbon with decreasing CH4 flow rate, resulted from increased self-bias. The 1520 cm−1 peak shifts to higher frequency by reducing the CH4flow rate, probably resulted from the increased internal stress.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.