In Thailand, two species of rhizostome jellyfish, Rhopilema hispidum and Lobonemoides robustus, are commercially harvested. The cnidomes, nematocyst size and toxicities were compared between these species. Rhopilema hispidum and L. robustus each had four types of nematocysts on their oral arms. For R. hispidum, these nematocyst types included two types of isorhiza and two types of rhopaloid, while in L. robustus, there were three types of isorhiza and one type of rhopaloid. For R. hispidum, tubule lengths of the largest nematocyst type (large round isorhiza; mean ± SD = 313.8 ± 62.2 μm) were significantly longer than those of L. robustus (large ellipsoid rhopaloid; 162.1 ± 38.5 μm). Using the freshwater shrimp, Palaemon paucidens, in a bioassay, we determined that the lethal nematocyst concentrations for R. hispidum and L. robustus were 5705.3 ± 1118.1 and 3408.3 ± 1032.9 unit g−1 wet weight, respectively, and that these concentrations were significantly higher in the former than in the latter.