To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Hans-Curt Flemming, Department of Aquatic Microbiology, University of Duisburg, Germany,
Jost Wingender, Department of Aquatic Microbiology, University of Duisburg, Germany,
Christian Mayer, Institute for Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, University of Duisburg, Germany,
Volker Körstgens, Institute for Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, University of Duisburg, Germany,
Werner Borchard, Institute for Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, University of Duisburg, Germany
The vast majority of micro-organisms live and grow in aggregated forms such as biofilms, flocs (‘planktonic biofilms’) and sludges. This form of growth is lumped in the somewhat inexact but generally accepted expression ‘biofilm’. The feature which is common to all these phenomena is that the micro-organisms are embedded in a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) which are responsible for morphology, structure, coherence, physico-chemical properties and activity of these aggregates (Wingender & Flemming, 1999). Biofilms are ubiquitously distributed in natural soil and aquatic environments, on tissues of plants, animals and man, as well as in technical systems such as filters and other porous materials, reservoirs, pipelines, ship hulls, heat exchangers, separation membranes, etc. (Costerton et al., 1987; Flemming & Schaule, 1996); biofilms may also develop on medical devices, thus initiating persistent infections in humans (Costerton et al., 1999). Biofilms develop adherent to a solid surface (substratum) at solid–water interfaces, but can also be found at water–air and at solid–air interfaces. They are accumulations of micro-organisms (prokaryotic and eukaryotic unicellular organisms), EPS, multivalent cations, inorganic particles, biogenic material (detritus) as well as colloidal and dissolved compounds. EPS are considered as the key components that determine the structural and functional integrity of microbial aggregates. EPS form a three-dimensional, gel-like, highly hydrated and locally charged biofilm matrix, in which the micro-organisms are more or less immobilized. EPS create a microenvironment for sessile cells which is conditioned by the nature of the EPS matrix. In general, the proportion of EPS in biofilms can vary between roughly 50 and 90% of the total organic matter (Christensen & Characklis, 1990; Nielsen et al., 1997).
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.