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Using modern pollen and radiolarian distributions in sediments from the northwest Pacific and seas adjacent to Japan to interpret floral and faunal changes in core RC14-103 (44°02′N, 152°56′E), we recognize two major responses of the biota of eastern Hokkaido and the northwest Pacific to climatic changes since the last interglaciation. Relatively stable glacial environments (∼80,000–20,000 yr B.P.) were basically cold and wet (<4°C and ∼1000 mm mean annual temperature and precipitation, respectively) with boreal conijers and tundra/park-tundra on Hokkaido, and cool (<16°C) summer and cold (<1.0°C) winter surface temperatures offshore. Contrasting nonglacial environments (∼10,000–4000 yr B.P.) were warm and humid (>8°C and >1200 mm mean annual temperature and precipitation, respectively), supporting climax broadleaf deciduous forest with Quercus and Ulmus/Zelkova, with surface waters in the northwest Pacific characterized by warm (>1.5°C) winter and cold (10.4°–14.3°C) summer temperatures. Climatic evidence from RC14-103 shows a high degree of local and regional variation within the context of global climatic change. Correlative ocean and land records provide the detailed input necessary to assess local/regional responses to variations in other key elements (i.e., solar radiation, monsoonal variations) of the northeast Asian climate system.
An expanded study of the radiolarian Cycladophora davisiana in late-Pleistocene North Atlantic marine sediments shows that over the last several hundred thousand years this species exhibits large variations in relative abundance. The C. davisiana curves in the North Atlantic cores are quite similar, with easily recognizable features common to all records. Minor deviations from the general pattern of this species' abundance apparently reflect the response of C. davisiana to specific oceanographic conditions characteristic of a particular area within the North Atlantic. C. davisiana occurs today in high abundance (>20%) only in the Sea of Okhotsk. Extensive winter and early spring sea-ice cover coupled with low surface-water salinities during summer and fall is responsible for maintaining near-freezing subsurface temperatures in this northwest Pacific marginal sea as well as relatively stable temperatures and salinities at depths below a shallow subsurface temperature minimum. During periods in the late Pleistocene, high C. davisiana abundances (>20%) in the North Atlantic were probably associated with oceanographic properties similar to those that exist in the Sea of Okhotsk today. Because of the relationship between relatively stable subsurface temperatures and salinities and high abundance levels of C. davisiana, analysis of this species' abundance pattern at several locations throughout the high-latitude North Atlantic should assist in identifying source areas of deep-water formation and determining the duration of deep convective processes at these sites.
Late-glacial pollen time-series from high-sedimentation-rate marine cores KH79-3-C6, CH84-04, and CH84-14 show the rise of successional vegetation (typified by Betula) during the replacement of boreal forest types (Picea and Pinus) by thermophilous Quercus forests. Variations in these three marine pollen records replicate the trends and timing of pollen records from Japan and the structure and timing of vegetation and climatic changes on the Pacific coast of Japan since the last glacial maximum. In marine cores KH79-3-C6, CH84-04, and CH84-14, oxygen isotope and/or marine faunal data have been interpreted as evidence of a cooling event in the northwest Pacific Ocean which is coeval with the Younger Dryas chronozone. Pollen records from these northwest Pacific cores, like those from Japan, do not exhibit a regionally replicated, statistically robust, pollen assemblage which can be unambiguously interpreted as evidence of a late-glacial climatic reversal between ca. 11,000 and 10,000 yr B.P. The apparent disparity between the terrestrial (pollen) and marine evidence for a climatic oscillation during the Younger Dryas chron in northeast Asia further complicates the variable record of this brief late-glacial event.
A quantitative analysis of radiolarian species in 57 deep-sea surface sediment samples from the South Atlantic Ocean produced four geographically distinct assemblages (tropical, polar, gyre margin, and subtropical). The distributions of these assemblages or factors coincide with present-day patterns of sea-surface temperatures or water masses.
These four assemblages were used to construct a transfer function relating radiolarian distribution in the surface sediments to present-day winter and summer temperatures using standard regression techniques. As a test of the quality of this transfer function, temperatures were estimated on surface sediment samples from the eastern South Pacific. The temperatures produced by the transfer function compared favorably with the observed (present-day) winter and summer sea-surface temperatures at these sites.
The final effort of the CLIMAP project was a study of the last interglaciation, a time of minimum ice volume some 122,000 yr ago coincident with the Substage 5e oxygen isotopic minimum. Based on detailed oxygen isotope analyses and biotic census counts in 52 cores across the world ocean, last interglacial sea-surface temperatures (SST) were compared with those today. There are small SST departures in the mid-latitude North Atlantic (warmer) and the Gulf of Mexico (cooler). The eastern boundary currents of the South Atlantic and Pacific oceans are marked by large SST anomalies in individual cores, but their interpretations are precluded by no-analog problems and by discordancies among estimates from different biotic groups. In general, the last interglacial ocean was not significantly different from the modern ocean. The relative sequencing of ice decay versus oceanic warming on the Stage 6/5 oxygen isotopic transition and of ice growth versus oceanic cooling on the Stage 5e/5d transition was also studied. In most of the Southern Hemisphere, the oceanic response marked by the biotic census counts preceded (led) the global ice-volume response marked by the oxygen-isotope signal by several thousand years. The reverse pattern is evident in the North Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico, where the oceanic response lagged that of global ice volume by several thousand years. As a result, the very warm temperatures associated with the last interglaciation were regionally diachronous by several thousand years. These regional lead-lag relationships agree with those observed on other transitions and in long-term phase relationships; they cannot be explained simply as artifacts of bioturbational translations of the original signals.
The Imbrie-Kipp method of paleotemperature estimation is rigorously tested by comparing Atlantic temperature equations independently derived from the microfossils of three biotic groups: the Foraminifera, Coccolithophorida, and Radiolaria. This method consists of two steps: factor analysis of the modern sea-bed data of the individual groups which resolves discrete biogeographic assemblages and regression analysis of the modern assemblage data with observed sea-surface temperature data to obtain paleotemperature equations. Assemblage biogeography shows a simple subdivision into warm (low latitude) and cold (high latitude) for all biotic groups. Between biotic groups there is greater similarity among high-latitude assemblages than low-latitude ones. Correlating the assemblage data with observed sea-surface temperatures to produce temperature distribution patterns shows differences of less than 2°C in their optimum and critical temperatures. Regression analysis produced accurate temperature equations for each biotic group, all with standard errors of estimate of less than or equal to 2°C. Multiple correlation coefficients were all greater than 0.970. Applying these equations to two multiple biotic data sets (the modern and ice-age sea-bed data) and comparing their temperature estimates using the standard error pooled, shows over 87% concordancy for both data sets. Unlike the modern data, the discordancy among temperature estimates of the ice-age data shows a distinct geographic distribution; its cause is believed to be oceanographic, a difference in the water-mass structure between the modern and ice-age ocean.
Temperature estimates produced by a radiolarian-based transfer function, factor distributions of radiolarian assemblages, and variations in calcium carbonate were used to reconstruct the oceanographic conditions in the South Atlantic during the last glacial maximum (18,000 yr B.P.). This study suggests that while the position of the Subtropical Convergence at 18,000 yr B.P. was very similar to its present position, the Antarctic Polar Front shifted northward 1° to 3° of latitude in the eastern South Atlantic and 3° to 5° of latitude in the western South Atlantic. The largest temperature changes occurred in the subantarctic region and along the eastern portion of the Subtropical Gyre.
As the rate of terrorism increases, it is important for health care providers to become familiar with the management of injuries inflicted by blasts and explosions. This article reviews the ocular injuries associated with explosive blasts, providing basic concepts with which to approach the blast-injured patient with eye trauma. We conducted a literature review of relevant articles indexed in PubMed between 1948 and 2007. Two hundred forty-four articles were reviewed. We concluded that ocular injury is a frequent cause of morbidity in blast victims, occurring in up to 28% of blast survivors. Secondary blast injuries, resulting from flying fragments and debris, cause the majority of eye injuries among blast victims. The most common blast eye injuries include corneal abrasions and foreign bodies, eyelid lacerations, open globe injuries, and intraocular foreign bodies. Injuries to the periorbital area can be a source of significant morbidity, and ocular blast injuries have the potential to result in severe vision loss.
(Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2010;4:154-160)
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