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Differences in bottled v. tap water intake may provide insights into health disparities, like risk of dental caries and inadequate hydration. We examined differences in plain, tap and bottled water consumption among US adults by sociodemographic characteristics.
Cross-sectional analysis. We used 24 h dietary recall data to test differences in percentage consuming the water sources and mean intake between groups using Wald tests and multiple logistic and linear regression models.
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2007–2014.
A nationally representative sample of 20 676 adults aged ≥20 years.
In 2011–2014, 81·4 (se 0·6) % of adults drank plain water (sum of tap and bottled), 55·2 (se 1·4) % drank tap water and 33·4 (se 1·4) % drank bottled water on a given day. Adjusting for covariates, non-Hispanic (NH) Black and Hispanic adults had 0·44 (95 % CI 0·37, 0·53) and 0·55 (95 % CI 0·45, 0·66) times the odds of consuming tap water, and consumed B=−330 (se 45) ml and B=−180 (se 45) ml less tap water than NH White adults, respectively. NH Black, Hispanic and adults born outside the fifty US states or Washington, DC had 2·20 (95 % CI 1·79, 2·69), 2·37 (95 % CI 1·91, 2·94) and 1·46 (95 % CI 1·19, 1·79) times the odds of consuming bottled water than their NH White and US-born counterparts. In 2007–2010, water filtration was associated with higher odds of drinking plain and tap water.
While most US adults consumed plain water, the source (i.e. tap or bottled) and amount differed by race/Hispanic origin, nativity status and education. Water filters may increase tap water consumption.
To define the extent of an outbreak of Achromobacter xylosoxidans bacteremia, determine the source of the outbreak, and implement control measures.
An outbreak investigation, including environmental and infection control assessment, and evaluation of hypotheses using the binomial distribution and case control studies.
A 50-bed medical surgical unit in a hospital in Illinois during the period January 1–July 15, 2006.
Discontinuation of use of opioid delivery via patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) until the source of the outbreak was identified and implementation of new protocols to ensure more rigorous observation of PCA pump cartridge manipulations.
Calculations based on the binomial distribution indicated the probability that all 9 patients with A. xylosoxidans bacteremia were PCA pump users by chance alone was <.001. A subsequent case control study identified PCA pump use for administration of morphine as a risk factor for A. xylosoxidans bacteremia (odds ratio, undefined; P< .001). Having a PCA pump cartridge with morphine started by nurse C was significantly associated with becoming a case-patient (odds ratio, 46; 95% confidence interval, 4.0–525.0; P< .001).
We hypothesize that actions related to diversion of morphine by nurse C were the likely cause of the outbreak. An aggressive pain control program involving the use of opioid medication warrants an equally aggressive policy to prevent diversion of medication by staff.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2012;33(2):180-184
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