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The Subglacial Antarctic Lakes Scientific Access (SALSA) Project accessed Mercer Subglacial Lake using environmentally clean hot-water drilling to examine interactions among ice, water, sediment, rock, microbes and carbon reservoirs within the lake water column and underlying sediments. A ~0.4 m diameter borehole was melted through 1087 m of ice and maintained over ~10 days, allowing observation of ice properties and collection of water and sediment with various tools. Over this period, SALSA collected: 60 L of lake water and 10 L of deep borehole water; microbes >0.2 μm in diameter from in situ filtration of ~100 L of lake water; 10 multicores 0.32–0.49 m long; 1.0 and 1.76 m long gravity cores; three conductivity–temperature–depth profiles of borehole and lake water; five discrete depth current meter measurements in the lake and images of ice, the lake water–ice interface and lake sediments. Temperature and conductivity data showed the hydrodynamic character of water mixing between the borehole and lake after entry. Models simulating melting of the ~6 m thick basal accreted ice layer imply that debris fall-out through the ~15 m water column to the lake sediments from borehole melting had little effect on the stratigraphy of surficial sediment cores.
A landmark orients, signals a turning point, indicates a boundary. Lafayette’s La Princesse de Clèves (1678) was immediately recognized, both by those who disliked it and those who appreciated it, as announcing a new approach to plot structure, representation of society, plausibility (or its lack), and character development. Later the terms ‘psychology’ and ‘analysis’ were used to point to the narrative’s approach to portraying the feelings and thoughts of the protagonist. One of the most obvious ways in which the text distinguishes itself from other novels of its period is its brevity. This quality gives it particular staying-power as a landmark, making it useful in school curricula as an example of the literature of its period—though this use risks skewing the view of seventeenth-century novels by presenting a striking, innovative exception, as the norm. Because landmarks indicate boundaries, they can serve as symbols of the territories they define. La Princesse de Clèves serves today as a marker of the cultural tradition of France itself. It is thus at the centre of debates about the literary canon and of national identity. For both the seventeenth century and for the twenty-first, Lafayette’s work fuels debate.
Psychological attachment to political parties can bias people’s attitudes, beliefs, and group evaluations. Studies from psychology suggest that self-affirmation theory may ameliorate this problem in the domain of politics on a variety of outcome measures. We report a series of studies conducted by separate research teams that examine whether a self-affirmation intervention affects a variety of outcomes, including political or policy attitudes, factual beliefs, conspiracy beliefs, affective polarization, and evaluations of news sources. The different research teams use a variety of self-affirmation interventions, research designs, and outcomes. Despite these differences, the research teams consistently find that self-affirmation treatments have little effect. These findings suggest considerable caution is warranted for researchers who wish to apply the self-affirmation framework to studies that investigate political attitudes and beliefs. By presenting the “null results” of separate research teams, we hope to spark a discussion about whether and how the self-affirmation paradigm should be applied to political topics.
Obtaining objective, dietary exposure information from individuals is challenging because of the complexity of food consumption patterns and the limitations of self-reporting tools (e.g., FFQ and diet diaries). This hinders research efforts to associate intakes of specific foods or eating patterns with population health outcomes.
Dietary exposure can be assessed by the measurement of food-derived chemicals in urine samples. We aimed to develop methodologies for urine collection that minimised impact on the day-to-day activities of participants but also yielded samples that were data-rich in terms of targeted biomarker measurements.
Urine collection methodologies were developed within home settings.
Different cohorts of free-living volunteers.
Home collection of urine samples using vacuum transfer technology was deemed highly acceptable by volunteers. Statistical analysis of both metabolome and selected dietary exposure biomarkers in spot urine collected and stored using this method showed that they were compositionally similar to urine collected using a standard method with immediate sample freezing. Even without chemical preservatives, samples can be stored under different temperature regimes without any significant impact on the overall urine composition or concentration of forty-six exemplar dietary exposure biomarkers. Importantly, the samples could be posted directly to analytical facilities, without the need for refrigerated transport and involvement of clinical professionals.
This urine sampling methodology appears to be suitable for routine use and may provide a scalable, cost-effective means to collect urine samples and to assess diet in epidemiological studies.
The current COVID-19 pandemic is not just a medical and social tragedy, but within the threat of the outbreak looms the potential for a significant and persistent negative mental health impact, based on previous experience with other pandemics such as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in 2003 and the earlier H1N1 outbreak of 1918. This piece will highlight the links between depression and viral illnesses and explore important overlaps with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome, potentially implicating inflammatory mechanisms in those exposed to a range of viral agents. While containment of psychological distress currently focuses on social anxiety and quarantine measures, a second wave of psychological morbidity due to viral illness may be imminent.
Vance Byrd's monograph demonstrates how the panorama helped create a modern sense of identity for the bourgeoisie in nineteenth-century Germany. The panorama was a popular visual medium, yet most Germans experienced it not firsthand, but in printed texts. Germans could read descriptions of panoramas, purchase guides and keys to well-known panoramas, and find panorama-like perspectives and metaphors in the literature of their time. Consequently, Byrd treats the panorama as both medium and metaphor, as both physical object and as practices that advanced a “literary pedagogy of observation.” Panoramas and their literary manifestations created an immersive world in which to debate the potentialities of modern life.
The first chapter of this book analyzes the invention of the panorama and highlights the ephemera and material objects that accompanied it: advertisements, guidebooks, keys, etc. These tools made a panorama readable, but also made it less immediate; they interrupted the sense of visual engagement and immersion with the panorama itself. Hence, the panoramic experience was not an unfettered gaze comprehending a unified compositional field, but entailed the reconciliation of that visual field with accumulated information, details, and facts gained through reading. Such readings helped audiences transform visual experience into experiences of the imagination. “The cognitive and intellectual process of producing and seeing a panorama, the attempt at unifying nature, history, and politics under the same gaze, illustrates the totalizing ambition of this mode of representation” (32), an ambition that endured in literature of the nineteenth century.
The second chapter details the treatment of the panorama in fashion journals, most prominently in F. J. Bertuch's Journal des Luxus und der Moden (1786– 1827), and traces how the journal brought the panorama from the heterotopia of the popular fair to the bourgeois household. The journals made the panorama German (asserting its German rather than British provenance), bourgeois (linking panoramas to the bourgeois landscape garden), and domestic (panoramic images became fashionable entertainments within bourgeois households). Panoramas thus allowed Germans to envision themselves as bourgeois subjects of a potentially modern nation.
ON THE OCCASION of Theodor Fontane's two hundredth birthday, his reaction to an earlier birthday yields food for thought. Fontane describes his seventieth birthday celebration to Heinrich Jacobi on January 23, 1890:
Man hat mich kolossal gefeiert und—auch wieder gar nicht. Das moderne Berlin hat einen Götzen aus mir gemacht, aber das alte Preußen, das ich, durch mehr als 40 Jahre hin, in Kriegsbüchern, Biographien, Land- und Leute-Schilderungen und volkstümlichen Gedichten verherrlicht habe, dies “alte Preußen” hat sich kaum gerührt …
[I was celebrated colossally and—again not at all. Modern Berlin made an idol out of me, but old Prussia, which I had glorified throughout more than forty years—in war reports, biographies, descriptions of country and people, and in popular poems—this “old Prussia” hardly stirred …]
The disparity in perception between modern Berlin and old Prussia clearly troubles Fontane; one senses that, at some level, he longs to be acknowledged by traditional Prussia, much as he may despise it, and that his image of himself as a writer does not coincide with the image that the literary world has of him. This tension, even contradiction, mirrors the enigmatic reception of Fontane in subsequent generations and particularly in the English-speaking world. Fontane is sometimes an advocate for the declining landed nobility of Prussia, sometimes the pioneer of the modernist metropolis, the champion of rural Prussia and Brandenburg but also of cosmopolitan London and the world at large. Is he regressive or progressive, an advocate of provincialism or cosmopolitanism, a traditionalist or a modernist? Fontane's staying power comes in part from his resistance to easy classification according to such binaries. He still speaks to us today because he sustains a productive tension between both the modernist idol and the compassionate, albeit ironic, chronicler of “old Prussia.”
With this volume celebrating Fontane's two hundredth birthday, we engage the tension between the modern and the traditional, the contemporary and the historical in Fontane by offering a range of contributions from the world of English-language Fontane scholarship in the twenty-first century. Balancing the competing demands of fidelity to the author's history and literary production in the nineteenth century with the interests of our own era requires recognizing both the striking similarities and the stark differences between the late-nineteenth and the early-twenty-first centuries.
THEODOR FONTANE's 1892 NOVEL Frau Jenny Treibel foregrounds conflicts within the Prussian middle class, specifically between the Besitzbürgertum (propertied middle class) and the Bildungsbürgertum (educated middle class). Onto the divisions between these two subgroups Fontane projects binary oppositions such as modern and traditional, prose and poetry, and materialism and idealism, respectively. The subtitle of the novel, “Wo sich Herz zum Herzen find't” (14:3; When Heart to Heart Is Paired, 46), suggests that the novel might reconcile these polarities. Indeed, as Hugo Aust notes, resolution was an essential aesthetic criterion when Fontane reviewed literary works as a critic. Yet we do not find real resolution in this novel, for Fontane portrays these two groups as irreconcilably divided. If hearts are paired in the novel, then it occurs only within each subgroup of the Bürgertum, not across their boundaries.
What relevance might this unresolved nineteenth-century internecine class conflict have for the first half of the twenty-first century? In this novel Fontane stages a conflict with implications broader than the narrow temporal and geographical confines of nineteenth-century bourgeois Berlin society. He maps the distinctions within the Berliner bourgeoisie onto conceptions of both the nature and geography of Europe: on the one hand, a more modern, industrialized Europe, characterized by commerce and identified with Northern and Western Europe, England in particular; on the other, an ancient Europe, grounded in a rich cultural tradition and identified with Southern and Southeastern Europe, specifically Italy and Greece. The failed attempts to reconcile the differences between subgroups of the bourgeoisie reflect pessimism not only toward class reconciliation but also toward attempts at reconciliation and unity on a transnational scale. The inability to overcome the rift between Besitzbürgertum and Bildungsbürgertum, between materialism and culture, suggests that, in Fontane's perspective, attempts at transnational unity such as we find in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries will only perpetuate the failed attempts to reconcile these differences.
To some it might seem far-fetched to search for transnational and global issues in Fontane, who has been described as a Berlin author, a “particularist of the metropolis.” Yet Fontane was keenly aware of the world outside of Germany, not least from his time as a foreign correspondent in London (1855–59). In a recent article Roland Berbig offers a close historical reading of the first week of May during Fontane's 1858 visit to London as a demonstration in nuce of Fontane's international awareness and engagement.
Rush skeletonweed is emerging as a regionally important weed of winter wheat production in eastern Washington. Field studies were conducted during the 2016 and 2017 crop years to evaluate several auxin herbicides applied at two seasonal timings (fall or spring) for control of rush skeletonweed in winter wheat. Clopyralid (210 g ae ha-1) provided>90% visual control of rush skeletonweed in both years of the study and aminopyralid (10 g ae ha-1) provided>80% visual control. Aminocyclopyrachlor, dicamba, and 2,4-D provided<55% control of rush skeletonweed. Season of application did not meaningfully affect efficacy of any herbicide tested. Wheat yields were reduced by 39 to 69% compared to the non-treated check when aminocyclopyrachlor was applied in the spring. Clopyralid is an effective option for control of rush skeletonweed in Pacific Northwest winter wheat.
The Atypical Maternal Behavior Instrument for Assessment and Classification (AMBIANCE; Bronfman, Madigan, & Lyons-Ruth, 2009–2014; Bronfman, Parsons, & Lyons-Ruth, 1992–2004) is a widely used and well-validated measure for assessing disrupted forms of caregiver responsiveness within parent–child interactions. However, it requires evaluating approximately 150 behavioral items from videotape and extensive training to code, thus making its use impractical in most clinical contexts. Accordingly, the primary aim of the current study was to identify a reduced set of behavioral indicators most central to the AMBIANCE coding system using latent-trait item response theory (IRT) models. Observed mother–infant interaction data previously coded with the AMBIANCE was pooled from laboratories in both North America and Europe (N = 343). Using 2-parameter logistic IRT models, a reduced set of 45 AMBIANCE items was identified. Preliminary convergent and discriminant validity was evaluated in relation to classifications of maternal disrupted communication assigned using the full set of AMBIANCE indicators, to infant attachment disorganization, and to maternal sensitivity. The results supported the construct validity of the refined item set, opening the way for development of a brief screening measure for disrupted maternal communication. IRT models in clinical scale refinement and their potential for bridging clinical and research objectives in developmental psychopathology are discussed.