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Fungal hyphae associated with tree roots extending into the surrounding substrate are suspected to have to contaminated buried plant material with recent carbon in two examples and to have resulted in erroneously young radiocarbon ages. This problem might be overcome by choosing sampling sites far from trees or by analyzing the lignin component of samples, although the latter is presently difficult.
This study aimed to examine the predictors of cognitive performance in patients with pediatric mild traumatic brain injury (pmTBI) and to determine whether group differences in cognitive performance on a computerized test battery could be observed between pmTBI patients and healthy controls (HC) in the sub-acute (SA) and the early chronic (EC) phases of injury.
203 pmTBI patients recruited from emergency settings and 159 age- and sex-matched HC aged 8–18 rated their ongoing post-concussive symptoms (PCS) on the Post-Concussion Symptom Inventory and completed the Cogstate brief battery in the SA (1–11 days) phase of injury. A subset (156 pmTBI patients; 144 HC) completed testing in the EC (∼4 months) phase.
Within the SA phase, a group difference was only observed for the visual learning task (One-Card Learning), with pmTBI patients being less accurate relative to HC. Follow-up analyses indicated higher ongoing PCS and higher 5P clinical risk scores were significant predictors of lower One-Card Learning accuracy within SA phase, while premorbid variables (estimates of intellectual functioning, parental education, and presence of learning disabilities or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder) were not.
The absence of group differences at EC phase is supportive of cognitive recovery by 4 months post-injury. While the severity of ongoing PCS and the 5P score were better overall predictors of cognitive performance on the Cogstate at SA relative to premorbid variables, the full regression model explained only 4.1% of the variance, highlighting the need for future work on predictors of cognitive outcomes.
The dominant conceptions of emotional intelligence can be categorized into “ability” models and “mixed” models. Ability models view emotional intelligence as a construct related to other intelligences and consisting of a set of mental abilities whereas mixed models view emotional intelligence as a blend of standard personality traits and various abilities. In this chapter, we review these models of emotional intelligence, including the measures associated with each, and provide a brief summary of the debate between ability models and mixed models. Narrowing in on the ability conception of emotional intelligence, we then discuss its behavioral and neural correlates, development, and malleability, as well as a school-based intervention designed to promote these skills. We conclude with an exploration of possibilities for the emotional intelligence research landscape in the next thirty years.
In recent years, the discovery of massive quasars at
has provided a striking challenge to our understanding of the origin and growth of supermassive black holes in the early Universe. Mounting observational and theoretical evidence indicates the viability of massive seeds, formed by the collapse of supermassive stars, as a progenitor model for such early, massive accreting black holes. Although considerable progress has been made in our theoretical understanding, many questions remain regarding how (and how often) such objects may form, how they live and die, and how next generation observatories may yield new insight into the origin of these primordial titans. This review focusses on our present understanding of this remarkable formation scenario, based on the discussions held at the Monash Prato Centre from November 20 to 24, 2017, during the workshop ‘Titans of the Early Universe: The Origin of the First Supermassive Black Holes’.
The optimal approach to unifocalisation in pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect and major aortopulmonary collateral arteries (pulmonary artery/ventricular septal defect/major aortopulmonary collaterals) remains controversial. Moreover, the impact of collateral vessel disease burden on surgical decision-making and late outcomes remains poorly defined. We investigated our centre’s experience in the surgical management of pulmonary artery/ventricular septal defect/major aortopulmonary collaterals.
Materials and methods
Between 1996 and 2015, 84 consecutive patients with pulmonary artery/ventricular septal defect/major aortopulmonary collaterals underwent unifocalisation. In all, 41 patients received single-stage unifocalisation (Group 1) and 43 patients underwent multi-stage repair (Group 2). Preoperative collateral vessel anatomy, branch pulmonary artery reinterventions, ventricular septal defect status, and late right ventricle/left ventricle pressure ratio were evaluated.
Median follow-up was 4.8 compared with 5.7 years for Groups 1 and 2, respectively, p = 0.65. Median number of major aortopulmonary collaterals/patient was 3, ranging from 1 to 8, in Group 1 compared with 4, ranging from 1 to 8, in Group 2, p = 0.09. Group 2 had a higher number of lobar/segmental stenoses within collateral vessels (p = 0.02). Group 1 had fewer catheter-based branch pulmonary artery reinterventions, with 5 (inter-quartile range from 1 to 7) per patient, compared with 9 (inter-quartile range from 4 to 14) in Group 2, p = 0.009. Among patients who achieved ventricular septal defect closure, median right ventricle/left ventricle pressure was 0.48 in Group 1 compared with 0.78 in Group 2, p = 0.03. Overall mortality was 6 (17%) in Group 1 compared with 9 (21%) in Group 2.
Single-stage unifocalisation is a promising repair strategy in select patients, achieving low rates of reintervention for branch pulmonary artery restenosis and excellent mid-term haemodynamic outcomes. However, specific anatomic substrates of pulmonary artery/ventricular septal defect/major aortopulmonary collaterals may be better suited to multi-stage repair. Preoperative evaluation of collateral vessel calibre and function may help inform more patient-specific surgical management.
Coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and viral hepatitis is associated with high morbidity and mortality in the absence of clinical management, making identification of these cases crucial. We examined characteristics of HIV and viral hepatitis coinfections by using surveillance data from 15 US states and two cities. Each jurisdiction used an automated deterministic matching method to link surveillance data for persons with reported acute and chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections, to persons reported with HIV infection. Of the 504 398 persons living with diagnosed HIV infection at the end of 2014, 2.0% were coinfected with HBV and 6.7% were coinfected with HCV. Of the 269 884 persons ever reported with HBV, 5.2% were reported with HIV. Of the 1 093 050 persons ever reported with HCV, 4.3% were reported with HIV. A greater proportion of persons coinfected with HIV and HBV were males and blacks/African Americans, compared with those with HIV monoinfection. Persons who inject drugs represented a greater proportion of those coinfected with HIV and HCV, compared with those with HIV monoinfection. Matching HIV and viral hepatitis surveillance data highlights epidemiological characteristics of persons coinfected and can be used to routinely monitor health status and guide state and national public health interventions.
To evaluate the impact of cases of community-onset, healthcare facility (HCF)-associated Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) on the incidence and outbreak detection of CDI.
A retrospective multicenter cohort study.
Five university-affiliated, acute care HCFs in the United States.
We collected data (including results of C. difficile toxin assays of stool samples) on all of the adult patients admitted to the 5 hospitals during the period from July I, 2000, through June 30, 2006. CDI cases were classified as HCF-onset if they were diagnosed more than 48 hours after admission or as community-onset, HCF-associated if they were diagnosed within 48 hours after admission and if the patient had recently been discharged from the HCF. Four surveillance definitions were compared: cases of HCF-onset CDI only (hereafter referred to as HCF-onset CDI) and cases of HCF-onset and community-onset, HCF-associated CDI diagnosed within 30, 60, and 90 days after the last discharge from the study hospital (hereafter referred to as 30-day, 60-day, and 90-day CDI, respectively). Monthly CDI rates were compared. Control charts were used to identify potential CDI outbreaks.
The rate of 30-day CDI was significantly higher than the rate of HCF-onset CDI at 2 HCFs (P < .01 ). The rates of 30-day CDI were not statistically significantly different from the rates of 60-day or 90-day CDI at any HCF. The correlations between each HCF's monthly rates of HCF-onset CDI and 30-day CDI were almost perfect (ρ range, 0.94-0.99; P < .001). Overall, 12 time points had a CDI rate that was more than 3 standard deviations above the mean, including 11 time points identified using the definition for HCF-onset CDI and 9 time points identified using the definition for 30-day CDI, with discordant results at 4 time points (k = 0.794; P < .001).
Tracking cases of both community-onset and HCF-onset, HCF-associated CDI captures significantly more CDI cases, but surveillance of HCF-onset, HCF-associated CDI alone is sufficient to detect an outbreak.
Nanowires have great potential as building blocks for nanoscale electrical and optoelectronic devices. The difficulty in achieving functional and hierarchical nanowire structures poses an obstacle to realization of practical applications. While post-growth techniques such as fluidic alignment might be one solution, self-assembled structures during growth such as branches are promising for functional nanowire junction formation. In this study, we report vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) self-branching of GaN nanowires during AuPd-catalyzed chemical vapor deposition (CVD). This is distinct from branches grown by sequential catalyst seeding or vapor-solid (VS) mode. We present evidence for a VLS growth mechanism of GaN nanowires different from the well-established VLS growth of elemental wires. Here, Ga solubility in AuPd catalyst is limitless as suggested by a hypothetical pseudo-binary phase diagram, and the direct reaction between NH3 vapor and Ga in the liquid catalyst induce the nucleation and growth. The self-branching can be explained in the context of the proposed VLS scheme and migration of Ga-enriched AuPd liquid on Ga-stabilized polar surface of mother nanowires. This work is supported by DOE Grant No. DE-FG02-98ER45701.
Background: This is a review of the experience over 26 year in a single institution with surgical repair of aortopulmonary window. Methods: Between July 1973 and March 1999, 38 patients underwent surgery for aortopulmonary window at a median age of 5 weeks, and with a median weight of 3.9 kg. Median follow-up was 6.6 years, with a range from 0.8 to 26 years. Additional defects were present in 25 (65%) patients, including interruption of the aortic arch in 7, tetralogy of Fallot in 7, ventricular septal defect in 5, functionally univentricular anatomy in 3, aortic coarctation in 2, and anomalous origin of a coronary artery in 1. We approached via an aortotomy in 45%, an incision through the defect in 31%, and using a pulmonary arteriotomy in 24% of patients. Closure was achieved using a single patch in 30 patients (79%). Results: There were 3 (7.9%) in-hospital deaths. Actuarial patient survival was 88% at 10 years. Three patients required reinterventions for stenoses of the great arteries. Freedom from any reintervention was 70% at 10 years. By multivariate analysis, the approach through a pulmonary arteriotomy was shown to result in a higher need for reintervention (p = 0.01). Conclusions: Repair of aortopulmonary window can be done with excellent results. A pulmonary arteriotomy should be avoided.
Neonatal cerebral white matter echolucencies predict visual resolution acuity deficits in very-low-birthweight (VLBW) infants. We examined maternal sociodemographic, lifestyle, intrapartum, infant birth/perinatal, and ocular motor/refractive characteristics to determine whether they accounted for this association in infants who were tested once between postnatal age 25 and 56 weeks (corrected for gestational age at birth). Cranial ultrasound scans were read by consensus to identify echolucency in a population of VLBW infants with no known ocular abnormalities. Visual resolution acuity was measured with the Acuity Card Procedure (ACP) in 14 infants with echolucency and compared with that of 81 VLBW infants born in the same hospitals with normal ultrasound scans. In time-oriented logistic regression models, echolucency remained a consistent predictor of abnormal visual resolution acuity after adjustment for covariates in three developmental periods (pre-, peri-, and postnatal). Odds ratios ranged from 19.3 (95% confidence interval, 4.5 to 82.2; p=0.001) to 10.4 (95% confidence interval, 1.3 to 81.9; p=0.03). Reduced visual resolution acuity in VLBW infants appears to be due to cerebral white matter damage.
The Fontan operation was initially designed to provide a “physiological correction” of tricuspid atresia, but its indications have been extended to more complex forms of congenitally malformed hearts. In selected patients with two adequately sized ventricles, but highly complex intra cardiac anatomy which makes a biventricular repair more hazardous and which would require multiple reoperations, a univentricular repair using Fontan's principle has been proposed. Between 1978 and 1992, a modified Fontan operation was carried out in 34 such patients. Of the patients. 13 had double outlet right ventricle and 21 had transposed great arteries. Anomalies of ventricular loop were present in 14 patients. A non-committed ventricular septal defect was found in 26 whilst multiple defects were present in 10. All patients had anomalies of the atrioventricular valves, with straddling of the tricuspid valve,11 and/or of the mitral valve11, and abnormal tricuspid5, or mitral4 cordal attachments. Two patients had mild tricuspid hypoplasia, 1 had mitral hypoplasia and 3 had a cleft mitral valve. Fourteen patients had anomalies of both atrioventricular valve but only 6 had mild atrioventricular valvar incompetence. Pulmonary stenosis or atresia was seem in 26. All the patients had at least one or more (mean 2.35) intracardiac anomalies that preculded a biventricular repair. The Fontan operation was performed at a median age of 4.75 years. There were 4 early (11.4%, 70% CL: 5.1–19.8) and 2 late deaths, with a 4 year actuarial survival rate of 79.6±8.1%. Univariate analysis did not reveal any risk factor for early of late death. Follow-up at a mean interval of 3.6 ±2.6 years was available in all but 1 survivor. There were 6 early and 2 late reoperations, and 3 patients required implantation of a pacemaker. In conclusion, the modified Fontan operation can provide satisfactory early and mid term results in patients with two ventricles but with complex intracardiac anatomy which precludes a biventricular repair.
We have investigated the tribomechanical properties of ion-beam-densified sol-gel zirconia overlayers on bulk zirconia. Ion irradiation of the sol-gel films leads to hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon losses as indicated by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and forward recoil energy spectroscopy. Ellipsometry measurements show that the film thickness decreases with increasing dose. The microhardness exhibits an increase and subsequent decrease with dose. Friction measurements along with profilometry measurements indicate that severe abrasive wear of the film takes place in the first 1000 cycles after which point the substrate is in direct contact with the pin.
To determine risk factors for and modes of transmission of Xanthomonas maltophilia infection/colonization.
Surveillance and cohort study.
A 470-bed tertiary trauma-referral community hospital.
From January 1, 1988 to March 17, 1989,106 intensive care unit patients developed X maltophilia infection/colonization. We defined a case as any intensive care unit patient who, from July 15, 1988, through March 17, 1989 (epidemic period), had X maltophilia infection/colonization ≥48 hours after intensive care unit admission. We identified 45 case patients and 103 control patients (persons in the shock-trauma intensive care unit for ≥72 hours during the epidemic period who had no X maltophilia-positive culture).
Cases were significantly more likely to occur in the shock-trauma intensive care unit than in all other intensive care units combined. Mechanical ventilation, tracheostomy, being transported to the hospital by airplane, and receipt of a higher mean number of antimicrobials were risk factors for X maltophilia infection/colonization. Risk of X maltophilia infection/colonization was significantly greater among cases exposed to a patient with a X maltophilia surgical wound infection than among those without such exposure (relative risk= 1.3, p= .03). Animate and inanimate cultures revealed X maltophilia contamination of the hospital room of a patient with an X maltophilia surgical wound infection, of respiratory therapy equipment in this patient% room, of respirometers shared between patients, and of shock-trauma intensive care unit personnel’s hands. Related environmental and clinical isolates were serotype 10.
Mechanically ventilated patients receiving antimicrobials in the shock-trauma intensive care unit were at increased risk of X maltophilia infection/colonization. Patients with draining X maltophilia surgical wound infections served as reservoirs for X maltophilia, and contamination of the respirometers and the hands of shock-trauma intensive care unit personnel resulted in patient-to-patient transmission of X maltophilia.
The partial pressure of O2 in milk from normal cows and from cows with mastitis was measured and the concentrations of O2 calculated. Oxygen levels of milk from normal cows were similar to those in venous plasma, but inflammation of the mammary gland led to a dramatic drop in O2 concentration to < 10% of control values. Intracellular survival of Staphylococcus aureus strain M60 in bovine neutrophils was greater under anaerobic than aerobic conditions. The implications of low O2 concentrations in milk from infected mammary glands for the bactericidal activity of bovine neutrophils is discussed.
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