To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Approximately half of the variation in wellbeing measures overlaps with variation in personality traits. Studies of non-human primate pedigrees and human twins suggest that this is due to common genetic influences. We tested whether personality polygenic scores for the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) domains and for item response theory (IRT) derived extraversion and neuroticism scores predict variance in wellbeing measures. Polygenic scores were based on published genome-wide association (GWA) results in over 17,000 individuals for the NEO-FFI and in over 63,000 for the IRT extraversion and neuroticism traits. The NEO-FFI polygenic scores were used to predict life satisfaction in 7 cohorts, positive affect in 12 cohorts, and general wellbeing in 1 cohort (maximal N = 46,508). Meta-analysis of these results showed no significant association between NEO-FFI personality polygenic scores and the wellbeing measures. IRT extraversion and neuroticism polygenic scores were used to predict life satisfaction and positive affect in almost 37,000 individuals from UK Biobank. Significant positive associations (effect sizes <0.05%) were observed between the extraversion polygenic score and wellbeing measures, and a negative association was observed between the polygenic neuroticism score and life satisfaction. Furthermore, using GWA data, genetic correlations of -0.49 and -0.55 were estimated between neuroticism with life satisfaction and positive affect, respectively. The moderate genetic correlation between neuroticism and wellbeing is in line with twin research showing that genetic influences on wellbeing are also shared with other independent personality domains.
Paul Stoodley, Center for Biofilm Engineering, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT, USA,
Luanne Hall-Stoodley, Center for Biofilm Engineering, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT, USA,
John D. Boyle, School of Engineering, Exeter University, Exeter, UK,
Frieda Jørgensen, Public Health Laboratory Service, Exeter, UK,
Hilary M. Lappin-Scott, Environmental Microbiology Research Group, Exeter University, Exeter, UK
It is increasingly evident that biofilms growing in a diverse range of medical, industrial and natural environments form a similarly diverse range of complex structures (Stoodley et al., 1999a). These structures often contain water channels which can increase the supply of nutrients to cells in the biofilm (deBeer & Stoodley, 1995) and prompted Costerton et al. (1995) to propose that the water channels may serve as a rudimentary circulatory system of benefit to the biofilm as a whole. This concept suggests that biofilm structure may be controlled, to some extent, by the organisms themselves and may be optimized for a certain set of environmental conditions. To date, most of the research on biofilm structure has been focused on the influence of external environmental factors such as surface chemistry and roughness, physical forces (that is, hydrodynamic shear) or nutrient conditions and the chemistry of the aqueous environment. However, there has been a recent increase in the number of researchers using molecular techniques to study the genetic regulation of biofilm formation and development. Davies et al. (1998) demonstrated that the structure of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm could be controlled through production of the cell signal (or pheromone) N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (OdDHL). In this paper, we will examine some of the research that has been conducted in our laboratories and those of others on the relative contribution of hydrodynamics, nutrients and cell signalling to the structure and behaviour of bacterial biofilms.
The hydrodynamic conditions of an aquatic environment will determine the transport rate of nutrients and planktonic cells to a surface, the shear stress acting on the biofilm and the rate of erosion of cells from the biofilm.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.