To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Although the concept, first demonstration, and potential applications of X-ray transmission mirrors (XTMs) were initially described over 30 years ago, only a few implementations exist in the literature. This is attributed to the unsolved challenge of a thick frame supporting a thin, reflecting membrane which does not itself block the transmitted beam. Here, we introduce a novel approach to solve this problem by employing silicon microfabrication. A robust XTM frame has been fabricated by using a novel two-step etch process, which secures the thin-film membrane without blocking the transmitted beam. Specifically, we have fabricated delicate XTM optics with 90% yield, which consist of 280-nm-thick low-stress silicon nitride membrane windows that are 1.5 mm wide and 125 mm long on silicon substrates. The XTM optics have been demonstrated to be a more efficient high-pass X-ray filter; for example, when configured for 40% transmission of 11.3 keV photons, we measure the reduction of 8.4 keV photons by a factor of 56.
Homoepitaxial SrTiO3 thin films were grown on SrTiO3 (001) using Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD). The deposition process was monitored in-situ, via both x-ray reflectivity and surface diffuse x-ray scattering measurements in the G3 experimental station at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS). Using a CCD detector in 1D, or streak-camera, mode with approximately 0.3-second time resolution, data were collected during growths performed at two substrate temperatures: 695°C and 1000°C. While the specular reflectivity oscillations for the two growths are very similar, the diffuse scattering clearly shows a distinct change in the peak position. Using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), we illustrate how the peak position for the diffuse lobes of scattered intensity is directly related to the distribution of single unit cell high islands on the growing surface. Thus, the peak shift of the diffuse scattering indicates an order of magnitude change in the island density.
We report fundamental changes in island nucleation dynamics as the kinetic energy of the constituent particles used for film grown is increased. A hyperthermal energy ion beam-line with precise control over ion kinetic energy was used to grow copper islands on a Cu(100) substrate. Dramatic increases in island densities were observed with increasing kinetic energy from thermal energies to 150 eV. We find that sputter erosion and the formation of adatom-vacancy pairs contribute to this increase. In addition, variations in flux and temperature suggest that the mean-field scaling exponent is sensitive to atomistic mechanisms activated by the ion beam.
Thin copper films have been deposited on single crystal copper substrates and characterized using a UHV Scanning Tunneling Microscope to probe the effect of atomic insertions during hyperthermal ion deposition. At low temperatures, atomic insertions are predicted to provide a net downhill current that offsets the roughening effect due to uphill “Schwoebel” currents leading to a net smoothing of the surface. Films have been grown at several different energies targeted to observe a crossover from insertion driven smoothing to adatom-vacancy dominated roughening. Copper thin films are deposited near 20 eV using a mass selected ion deposition system that allows precise control (+/− 2 eV) over the energy of constituent atoms. Experimental observations are compared with a sophisticated Kinetic Monte Carlo and Molecular Dynamics hybrid (KMC-MD) simulation.
In certain cases, the incidence energy of constituent atoms activates an atomistic insertion mechanism, which decreases the surface roughness of metal thin films. In an effort to probe this effect, homoepitaxial copper films were grown using a mass/energy selected direct ion deposition technique that allows precise control of the incidence energy. Surface roughness is measured using a Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) within the same UHV surface analysis system. The activation of the insertion mechanism near 20 eV triggers smoother crystal growth. The beneficial effects begin to be obscured by adatom/vacancy creation near 30 eV. A sophisticated Kinetic Monte Carlo/Molecular Dynamics (KMC-MD) model supports this interpretation.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.