X-ray scattering and reflectivity have been effectively used to measure the atomic-scale structure of surfaces and interfaces for several decades. Modern synchrotron X-ray facilities now deliver sufficient flux to make time-resolved measurements on a wide variety of systems feasible. In particular, time-resolved X-ray structural studies of Pulsed Laser Deposition of SrTiO3 [1-4] have recently been shown to provide detailed insight into the atomic-scale growth mechanisms. In addition to determining the growth mode, the surface/interface roughness, and the film thickness, some of the dynamics of the energetic collisions and the details of the subsequent kinetic relaxation are experimentally accessible. Epitaxial films grown by PLD are now of high enough quality that standard descriptions in terms of continuous surface roughness are no longer adequate to describe the X-ray data accurately. The time-resolved data sets provide both guidance for developing and mechanisms to test a new generation of multi-scale models.1. Fleet, A., D. Dale, Y. Suzuki, and J.D. Brock, Observed Effects of a Changing Step-Edge Density on Thin-Film Growth Dynamics. Physical Review Letters, 2005. 94: p. 036102.1-4.2. Fleet, A., D. Dale, A.R. Woll, Y. Suzuki, and J.D. Brock, Multiple Time Scales in Diffraction Measurements of Diffusive Surface Relaxation. Physical Review Letters, 2006. 96(5): p. 055508.1-4.3. Willmott, P.R., R. Herger, C.M. Schleputz, D. Martoccia, and B.D. Patterson, Energetic Surface Smoothing of Complex Metal-Oxide Thin Films. Physical Review Letters, 2006. 96(17): p. 176102.1-4.4. Tischler, J.Z., G. Eres, B.C. Larson, C.M. Rouleau, P. Zschack, and D.H. Lowndes, Nonequilibrium Interlayer Transport in Pulsed Laser Deposition. Physical Review Letters, 2006. 96(22): p. 226104.1-4.5. Dale, D., A. Fleet, J.D. Brock, and Y. Suzuki, X-ray scattering from real surfaces: discrete and continuous components of roughness. Submitted to Physical Review B, 2006.