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Resistant starch (RS) has received increased attention due to its potential health benefits. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of dietary corn RS on immunological characteristics of broilers. A total of 320 broiler chicks were randomly allocated to five dietary treatments: normal corn–soyabean (NC) diet group, corn starch diet group, 4 %, 8 % and 12 % RS diet groups. This trial lasted for 42 d. The relative weights of spleen, thymus and bursa, the concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) and IL-4 in plasma at 21 d of age, as well as the activities of total nitric oxide synthase (TNOS) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in plasma at 21 and 42 d of age showed positive linear responses (P < 0·05) to the increasing dietary RS level. Meanwhile, compared with the birds from the NC group at 21 d of age, birds fed 4 % RS, 8 % RS and 12 % RS diets exhibited higher (P < 0·05) relative weight of bursa and concentrations of NO and interferon-γ in plasma. Birds fed 4 % RS and 8 % RS diets showed higher (P < 0·05) number of IgA-producing cells in the jejunum. While compared with birds from the NC group at 42 d of age, birds fed 12 % RS diet showed higher (P < 0·05) relative weight of spleen and activities of TNOS and iNOS in plasma. These findings suggested that dietary corn RS supplementation can improve immune function in broilers.
The present study was carried out to determine whether N-acetylcysteine (NAC) could modulate liver injury in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged piglet model. For this purpose, eighteen piglets were randomly assigned to the control, LPS or NAC group. Piglets in the control and LPS groups were fed a basal diet, whereas those in the NAC group were fed the basal diet supplemented with 500 mg/kg NAC. On days 10, 13 and 20 of the trial, the LPS- and NAC-treated piglets were intraperitoneally administered LPS (100 μg/kg body weight), while the control group was administered the same volume of saline. On day 20 of the trial, blood samples were obtained 3 h after LPS or saline injection. On day 21, the piglets were killed to collect liver samples. Dietary NAC supplementation attenuated LPS-induced liver histomorphological abnormalities. Compared with the control group, in the LPS-challenged piglets, the activities of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase and the concentrations of H2O2, TNF-α, IL-6 and PGE2 were dramatically increased in the plasma and the activity of superoxide dismutase in the plasma and that of glutathione peroxidase in the liver were significantly decreased. The LPS challenge also increased the concentration of AMP and the ratio of AMP:ATP, but decreased adenylate energy charges and the levels of ATP and ADP. These adverse effects of the LPS challenge were ameliorated by NAC supplementation. Moreover, NAC inhibited the LPS-induced increases in the abundance of liver heat shock protein 70 and NF-κB proteins. In conclusion, these results suggest that dietary NAC supplementation alleviates LPS-induced liver injury by reducing the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, increasing the antioxidative capacity and improving energy metabolism.
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