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Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in social communication and presence of restricted, repetitive behaviors, and interests. However, individuals with ASD vary significantly in their challenges and abilities in these and other developmental domains. Gene discovery in ASD has accelerated in the past decade, and genetic subtyping has yielded preliminary evidence of utility in parsing phenotypic heterogeneity through genomic subtypes. Recent advances in transcriptomics have provided additional dimensions with which to refine genetic subtyping efforts. In the current study, we investigate phenotypic differences among transcriptional subtypes defined by neurobiological spatiotemporal co-expression patterns. Of the four transcriptional subtypes examined, participants with mutations to genes typically expressed highly in all brain regions prenatally, and those with differential postnatal cerebellar expression relative to other brain regions, showed lower cognitive and adaptive skills, higher severity of social communication deficits, and later acquisition of speech and motor milestones, compared to those with mutations to genes highly expressed during the postnatal period across brain regions. These findings suggest higher-order characterization of genetic subtypes based on neurobiological expression patterns may be a promising approach to parsing phenotypic heterogeneity among those with ASD and related neurodevelopmental disorders.
We implemented a cleaning process for mobile patient equipment (MPE) and determined its success using adenosine trisphosphate (ATP) monitoring and data feedback. Following education for staff and ATP data feedback, the data suggest that the MPE cleaning program we implemented was successful.
Introduction: A wealth of evidence indicates that neurocognitive deficits are evident in patients with schizophrenia at both illness onset and after many years of treatment. Little is known regarding if or how these deficits change during the lifespan. The goal of the study was to evaluate changes in full-scale intelligence quotient and neurocognitive test performance over a 10-year interval in patients with schizophrenia.
Methods: Twelve patients were administered the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised as a measure of intellectual function and a neuropsycshological test battery including measures of attention, verbal and nonverbal memory, language, visuospatial function, problem-solving, and motor function at entry to the study and at a 10-year follow-up.
Results: With the exception of performance on a measure of speeded motor sequencing, there was no significant decline in any of the measures at 10-year follow-up. Results from a measure of sustained auditory attention showed improvement at follow-up.
Discussion: These data support a neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia for young adult to middle-age patients by suggesting that neurocognitive deficits that emerge either before disease onset or early in the course of the illness remain stable as the patient ages.
Conclusion: Overall, measures of intelligence quotient as well as specific neurocognitive skills, do not decline over a 10-year period in at least a subgroup of patients with schizophrenia.
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