To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
This article addresses three related questions. Does voicing a political ideology in class make a professor less appealing to students? Does voicing an ideology in class make a professor less appealing to students with opposing views? Does the intensity of professors’ ideology affect their appeal? We conducted survey experiments in two public national universities to provide evidence of the extent to which students may tolerate or even prefer that professors share their political views and under which conditions these preferences may vary. Results from the experiments indicate that expressing a political opinion did not make a professor less appealing to students—and, in fact, made the professor more appealing to some students—but the perception that a professor’s ideology is particularly intense makes the class much less favorable for students with opposing views. Students are indifferent between moderately political and nonpolitical professors.
In our age of disposable pens and plentiful paper, writing by hand is an unremarkable and often unglamorous activity, even if the rise of digital technology has started to give it a certain retro chic. In the sixteenth century, the business of setting words on paper was by no means straightforward. Typically, before one could begin, quills needed to be cut or sharpened, ink had to be hand-made, and paper required smoothing or sizing to render it receptive to the ink. Writing came with its own distinctive paraphernalia, including sloping desks, candles with snuffers and wick-trimmers, bookrests, inkstands and pounce-pots (which held pounce or pin-dust to dry the ink). Despite this profusion of materials and the physical labour that might be needed to manipulate them, reading and writing were viewed as enfranchising activities which exercised the higher mental faculties and created plentiful opportunities for the ostentatious display of civility. The study became a privileged space in the home, to be decked out with appropriate finery, with bespoke cabinets and inkstands in the form of classical statuary. Across Europe, artists produced images of scholars and saints that lovingly documented their material surroundings, as if striving to connect their beautiful writing materials with the glories of their works and of their lives. This context provides a frame for our understanding of the two pen-cases that appear on the Eglantine Table now at Hardwick Hall (Plate 2).
Pen-cases – known in the period as ‘penners’ – were small (typically between 15 and 20 cm in length) and compact devices for holding quills and other implements of writing, and were attached with strings to a portable inkwell with a stopper. The examples depicted on the Eglantine Table appear on frieze C in an area otherwise devoted to music and to games, including cards, dicing, chess and backgammon. The cases are sharply differentiated in their depiction. The one between the violin and the chessboard is shown with both penner and inkwell closed up, and lies horizontally, as if resting on the surface of the Table (Figure 4.1, top; Plates 5, 15). Its rectilinearity is emphasised by horizontal lines, suggestive of grooves or ridges in the surface of the case, which is relieved by the flowing contours of the heart-shaped inkwell and of the strings that connect to it.
We sought to provide the first point prevalence estimates of muscle dysmorphia (MD), a form of body dysmorphic disorder characterized by a preoccupation with perceived insufficient muscularity, in adolescents.
Data were taken from a survey of 3618 Australian adolescents (11.172–19.76 years; 49.3% girls). Measures captured demographic characteristics, symptoms of MD and eating disorders, psychological distress and functional impairment. Diagnostic criteria for MD developed by Pope et al. (1997, Psychosomatics, 38(6), 548–557) were applied, entailing preoccupation with insufficient muscularity causing significant levels of distress or disability that cannot be better accounted for by an eating disorder.
The point prevalence of MD was 2.2% [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6–3.0%] among boys and 1.4% (95% CI 0.9–2.0%) among girls. Prevalence was not associated with gender (V = 0.031) or socioeconomic status (SES) (partial η2< 0.001), but was marginally associated with older age (partial η2 = 0.001). Boys with MD were more likely than girls with MD to report severe preoccupation with muscularity (V = 0.259) and a weight-lifting regime that interfered with their life (V = 0.286), whereas girls with MD were more likely to report discomfort with body exposure (V = 0.380).
While future epidemiological research using diagnostic interviews is needed to verify these estimates, the findings suggest that MD is relatively common from early to late adolescence. Gender differences in MD prevalence may be minimal; however, the symptom profile appears to diverge between boys and girls. These findings provide a platform for future, analytical research designed to inform clinical and public health interventions.
Introduction to Education provides pre-service teachers with an overview of the context, craft and practice of teaching in Australian schools as they commence the journey from learner to classroom teacher. Each chapter poses questions about the nature of teaching students, and guides readers though the Australian Professional Standards for Teachers. Incorporating recent research and theoretical literature, Introduction to Education presents a critical consideration of the professional, policy and curriculum contexts of teaching in Australia. The book covers theoretical topics in chapters addressing assessment, planning, safe learning environments, and working with colleagues, families, carers and communities. More practical chapters discuss professional experience and building a career after graduation. Rigorous in conception and practical in scope, Introduction to Education welcomes new educators to the theory and practical elements of teaching, learning, and professional practice.
Previous genetic association studies have failed to identify loci robustly associated with sepsis, and there have been no published genetic association studies or polygenic risk score analyses of patients with septic shock, despite evidence suggesting genetic factors may be involved. We systematically collected genotype and clinical outcome data in the context of a randomized controlled trial from patients with septic shock to enrich the presence of disease-associated genetic variants. We performed genomewide association studies of susceptibility and mortality in septic shock using 493 patients with septic shock and 2442 population controls, and polygenic risk score analysis to assess genetic overlap between septic shock risk/mortality with clinically relevant traits. One variant, rs9489328, located in AL589740.1 noncoding RNA, was significantly associated with septic shock (p = 1.05 × 10–10); however, it is likely a false-positive. We were unable to replicate variants previously reported to be associated (p < 1.00 × 10–6 in previous scans) with susceptibility to and mortality from sepsis. Polygenic risk scores for hematocrit and granulocyte count were negatively associated with 28-day mortality (p = 3.04 × 10–3; p = 2.29 × 10–3), and scores for C-reactive protein levels were positively associated with susceptibility to septic shock (p = 1.44 × 10–3). Results suggest that common variants of large effect do not influence septic shock susceptibility, mortality and resolution; however, genetic predispositions to clinically relevant traits are significantly associated with increased susceptibility and mortality in septic individuals.
Many factors such as environment, herbicide rate, growth stage at application, and days between sequential applications can influence the response of a crop to herbicides. Florpyrauxifen-benzyl is a new broad-spectrum, POST herbicide that was commercialized for use in U.S. rice production in 2018. Field experiments were conducted in 2018 at the Pine Tree Research Station (PTRS) near Colt, AR, and the Rice Research and Extension Center (RREC), near Stuttgart, AR, to evaluate crop injury and yield response of three rice cultivars to sequential applications of florpyrauxifen-benzyl. Greenhouse and growth chamber experiments were conducted at the Altheimer Laboratory in Fayetteville, AR, to evaluate cultivar responses when florpyrauxifen-benzyl was applied at 30 or 60 g ae ha−1 to rice exposed to different temperature regimes or at various growth stages. Three rice cultivars were used in all experiments: long-grain variety ‘CL111’, medium-grain variety ‘CL272’, and long-grain hybrid cultivar ‘CLXL745’. CL111 exhibited sufficient tolerance to florpyrauxifen-benzyl with only 10% visible injury and no effect on yield. CL272 showed 15% injury 3 wk after the second application in the field experiment when applications were made 14 d apart. Additionally, 12% injury was observed in greenhouse studies when florpyrauxifen-benzyl was applied at 30 g ae ha−1, averaged over various growth stages at application. Florpyrauxifen-benzyl did not reduce the yield of CL272 in field experiments, indicating that CL272 can recover from florpyrauxifen-benzyl injury. As much as 64% injury was observed for CLXL745 at 3 wk after application (WAA) when sequential herbicide applications were made 4 d apart. High levels of injury occurred in the growth chamber and greenhouse studies for this cultivar as well. Sequential applications of florpyrauxifen-benzyl reduced yields of CLXL745 in nearly all treatments. Data from these experiments suggest that CL272 and CLXL745 are sensitive to sequential applications of florpyrauxifen-benzyl. Growers must follow the prescribed guidelines for using florpyrauxifen-benzyl in these cultivars and others like it.
Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) TL1 trainees and KL2 scholars were surveyed to determine the immediate impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on training and career development. The most negative impact was lack of access to research facilities, clinics, and human subjects, plus for KL2 scholars lack of access to team members and need for homeschooling. TL1 trainees reported having more time to think and write. Common strategies to maintain research productivity involved time management, virtual connections with colleagues, and shifting to research activities not requiring laboratory/clinic settings. Strategies for mitigating the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on training and career development are described.
Downy brome, feral rye, and jointed goatgrass are problematic winter annual grasses in central Great Plains winter wheat production. Integrated control strategies are needed to manage winter annual grasses and reduce selection pressure exerted on these weed populations by the limited herbicide options currently available. Harvest weed-seed control (HWSC) methods aim to remove or destroy weed seeds, thereby reducing seed-bank enrichment at crop harvest. An added advantage is the potential to reduce herbicide-resistant weed seeds that are more likely to be present at harvest, thereby providing a nonchemical resistance-management strategy. Our objective was to assess the potential for HWSC of winter annual grass weeds in winter wheat by measuring seed retention at harvest and destruction percentage in an impact mill. During 2015 and 2016, 40 wheat fields in eastern Colorado were sampled. Seed retention was quantified and compared per weed species by counting seed retained above the harvested fraction of the wheat upper canopy (15 cm and above), seed retained below 15 cm, and shattered seed on the soil surface at wheat harvest. A stand-mounted impact mill device was used to determine the percent seed destruction of grass weed species in processed wheat chaff. Averaged across both years, seed retention (±SE) was 75% ± 2.9%, 90% ± 1.7%, and 76% ± 4.3% for downy brome, feral rye, and jointed goatgrass, respectively. Seed retention was most variable for downy brome, because 59% of the samples had at least 75% seed retention, whereas the proportions for feral rye and jointed goatgrass samples with at least 75% seed retention were 93% and 70%, respectively. Weed seed destruction percentages were at least 98% for all three species. These results suggest HWSC could be implemented as an integrated strategy for winter annual grass management in central Great Plains winter wheat cropping systems.