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This study is concerned with the identifiability of intonational phrase boundaries across familiar and unfamiliar languages. Four annotators segmented a corpus of more than three hours of spontaneous speech into intonational phrases. The corpus included narratives in their native German, but also in three languages of Indonesia unknown to them. The results show significant agreement across the whole corpus, as well as for each subcorpus. We discuss the interpretation of these results, including the hypothesis that it makes sense to distinguish between phonetic and phonological intonational phrases, and that the former are a universal characteristic of speech, allowing listeners to segment speech into intonational phrase-sized units even in unknown languages.
Batch-foaming of miscible, immiscible and compatibilized polymer blend
systems over a wide compositional range was carried out using carbon dioxide
as a physical blowing agent. The resulting foam morphology was characterized
by a detailed evaluation of foam density as well as of the cellular
parameters. With regard to multiphase blends, transmission electron
microscopic observations further provided a detailed insight into the cell
wall morphology. The role of the melt-elongational properties and of the
glass transition behavior of the various blend systems on the foaming
characteristics was systematically elucidated. While the miscible blends
showed a simple additivity behavior with regard to their foaming
characteristics and properties, a significant influence of the initial blend
morphology is demonstrated for the multiphase blends.
A simple mechanical stirring process leads to charge-stabilised dispersions of aligned, substrate-grown, CVD-grown multi-wall carbon nanotubes in an epoxy resin. Subsequent sample processing, after the addition of the hardener, can be used to induce the nanotube agglomeration necessary to achieve electrically conductive bulk composites at low loading fractions. Both the nanotube percolation threshold and the resulting bulk conductivity can be adjusted by selection of suitable processing parameters and nanotube aspect ratio. This behaviour of aligned CVD-grown multi-wall carbon nanotubes allows lower electrical percolation thresholds than are possible with entangled multi-wall carbon nanotubes, single-wall carbon nanotube bundles, or carbon black in an epoxy matrix. Furthermore, the application of electric fields during composite processing induces the formation of aligned multi-wall carbon nanotube networks between electrodes dipped into the dispersion. Such composites show an electrical conductivity above the anti-static level and retain a degree of optical transmissivity.
Macroscopic poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) and polypropylene (PP) nanocomposites containing vapour-grown carbon nanofibres (CNF) were produced using standard polymer processing. Tensile tests revealed a linear increase in composite stiffness with nanofibre content. A detailed DSC study verified that under standard processing conditions the degree of crystallinity and the crystalline structure of these semicrystalline thermoplastics were not affected by the nanofibres. Nevertheless, we provide evidence that the nanoscale filler can alter the polymer morphology under certain conditions, an effect which needs to be considered when evaluating nanocomposite properties. Given the absence of morphological changes in the standard nanocomposites we were able to calculate the intrinsic nanofibre modulus using short fibre theory; both distinctively different matrix systems show a similar effective nanofibre modulus.
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