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Emergent bilinguals (EBs) who are exposed to societal language at school but use another language at home may experience difficulties in mastering the societal language, especially those at risk for language and reading disabilities. Learning phonologically specific new words that discriminate between phonemes may foster phonological awareness and word reading. This study examined the effectiveness of a lexical specificity intervention program that targeted phoneme discrimination in EBs at risk for reading disabilities. EBs who scored below the 25th percentile on the screening measures were selected and randomly assigned to one of two conditions: at-risk intervention or at-risk control. Of the 76 EBs in the at-risk group, 40 were randomly assigned to receive the intervention. A group of 51 typically developing EBs who did not meet the risk criteria were selected as typical controls. The pre- and post-tests include phoneme discrimination, phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming, fluency, and decoding. The at-risk intervention group showed improvement on the phoneme discrimination task after the intervention and outperformed the at-risk control group but not the typical control group. In addition, growth was observed during both the training and testing sessions of the intervention. The lexical specificity intervention could be a good resource to enhance a key precursor to literacy development for at-risk EBs.
Civility relates to following rules that typically are aimed at promoting positive social behaviour. A lack of civility can be either intentional (e.g., insulting a classmate) or unintentional (e.g., packing up early). Civility is an important issue within classroom settings because it not only influences classroom functioning, but may also serve as a gateway to more serious antisocial behaviour. With regard to the latter, we were specifically interested in whether attitudes towards behaviour deemed as ‘incivility’ were associated with more serious bullying behaviour. Beyond any associations with each other, we were also interested in whether incivil attitudes and bullying share common personality correlates among adolescents. To answer these questions, our study examined the links between HEXACO personality traits, intentional and unintentional incivility, and bullying. Adolescents (n = 396) completed self-report questionnaires, and results were analysed with structural equation modelling. There were similarities and differences between the personality correlates of bullying and attitudes towards the two kinds of incivility. In particular, we found a significant association between personality and bullying behaviour that was mediated by attitudes towards intentional incivility. Our results highlight the importance of increasing awareness of educators regarding classroom incivility, given its potential negative implications within a school setting.
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