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To determine how pharmacists with formal antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) responsibilities prioritize their time and pharmacists without formal antimicrobial stewardship program responsibilities contribute to ASP activities.
A nationwide survey.
Members of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy who subscribe to the following practice and research network e-mail listservs: infectious diseases, adult medicine, cardiology, critical care, hematology–oncology, immunology and transplantation, and pediatrics.
A survey was distributed via listservs. Respondents were asked about their personal and institutional demographics and ASP activities.
In total, 245 pharmacists responded: 135 pharmacists with formal antimicrobial stewardship program responsibilities; 110 pharmacists without formal antimicrobial stewardship program responsibilities. Although most respondents had completed a general pharmacy residency (85%), only 20% had completed an infectious diseases (ID) specialty residency. Among pharmacists with formal antimicrobial stewardship program responsibilities, one-third had no formal training or certification in ID or ASP. Pharmacists without formal antimicrobial stewardship program responsibilities spent ∼12.5% of their time per week on ASP activities, whereas pharmacists with formal antimicrobial stewardship program responsibilities spent 28% of their time performing non-ASP activities. Pharmacists with formal antimicrobial stewardship program responsibilities were more likely than pharmacists without formal antimicrobial stewardship program responsibilities to perform antibiotic guideline development (P < .001), antibiotic-related education (P = .002), and direct notification of rapid diagnostic results (P = .018). Pharmacists with formal antimicrobial stewardship program responsibilities without formal ID training or certification spent less time on ASP activities and were more likely to perform lower-level interventions.
Many ASP activities are being performed by pharmacists without formal ID training. To ensure the future success of ASPs, pharmacists with formal antimicrobial stewardship program responsibilities should have adequate training to meet more advanced metrics, and more pharmacists without formal antimicrobial stewardship program responsibilities should be included in basic interventions.
Chinese morphological awareness is conceptualized as a multidimensional construct but there is a lack of understanding of how its dimensions are related. Latent change score modeling was used to examine the bivariate relationships of two facets of oral morphological awareness, namely morpheme and structure awareness in Chinese children in grades one through three. Two hundred and three children in China completed morpheme (homonym awareness) and structure awareness (lexical compounding) tasks across the three grades (M = 6.66, SD = .30 at the first time point). Results indicated that growth in structure awareness was predicted in part by previous levels of morpheme awareness, suggesting that morpheme awareness leads the growth of structure awareness. Educational implications are discussed.
SHEA endorses adhering to the recommendations by the CDC and ACIP for immunizations of all children and adults. All persons providing clinical care should be familiar with these recommendations and should routinely assess immunization compliance of their patients and strongly recommend all routine immunizations to patients. All healthcare personnel (HCP) should be immunized against vaccine-preventable diseases as recommended by the CDC/ACIP (unless immunity is demonstrated by another recommended method). SHEA endorses the policy that immunization should be a condition of employment or functioning (students, contract workers, volunteers, etc) at a healthcare facility. Only recognized medical contraindications should be accepted for not receiving recommended immunizations.
Benchmarks for antimicrobial consumption measured in antimicrobial days are beginning to emerge. The relationship between the traditional measure of days of therapy and antimicrobial days is unclear. We observed a high intermethod correlation (R2=0.99): antimicrobial days were 1.9-fold lower than days of therapy across agents. Individual institutions should correlate these measures.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;37:971–973
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