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Using statewide surveillance, we describe candidemia in Connecticut during 1998–2000 and 2019. In 2019, candidemia was more frequently associated with community-onset and non-albicans Candida species and less frequently associated with central vascular catheters, recent surgery, and in-hospital mortality. Understanding changes in candidemia can optimize clinical management and prevention strategies.
To estimate population-based rates and to describe clinical characteristics of hospital-acquired (HA) influenza.
US Influenza Hospitalization Surveillance Network (FluSurv-NET) during 2011–2012 through 2018–2019 seasons.
Patients were identified through provider-initiated or facility-based testing. HA influenza was defined as a positive influenza test date and respiratory symptom onset >3 days after admission. Patients with positive test date >3 days after admission but missing respiratory symptom onset date were classified as possible HA influenza.
Among 94,158 influenza-associated hospitalizations, 353 (0.4%) had HA influenza. The overall adjusted rate of HA influenza was 0.4 per 100,000 persons. Among HA influenza cases, 50.7% were 65 years of age or older, and 52.0% of children and 95.7% of adults had underlying conditions; 44.9% overall had received influenza vaccine prior to hospitalization. Overall, 34.5% of HA cases received ICU care during hospitalization, 19.8% required mechanical ventilation, and 6.7% died. After including possible HA cases, prevalence among all influenza-associated hospitalizations increased to 1.3% and the adjusted rate increased to 1.5 per 100,000 persons.
Over 8 seasons, rates of HA influenza were low but were likely underestimated because testing was not systematic. A high proportion of patients with HA influenza were unvaccinated and had severe outcomes. Annual influenza vaccination and implementation of robust hospital infection control measures may help to prevent HA influenza and its impacts on patient outcomes and the healthcare system.
Background: Recognition of bioterrorism-related infections by hospital and emergency department clinicians may be the first line of defense in a bioterrorist attack.
Methods: We identified unexplained infectious deaths consistent with the clinical presentation of anthrax, tularemia, smallpox, and botulism using Connecticut death certificates and hospital chart information. Minimum work-up criteria were established to assess the completeness of diagnostic testing.
Results: Of 4558 unexplained infectious deaths, 133 were consistent with anthrax (2.9%) and 6 (0.13%) with tularemia. None were consistent with smallpox or botulism. No deaths had anthrax or tularemia listed in the differential diagnosis or had disease-specific serology performed. Minimum work-up criteria were met for only 53% of cases.
Conclusions: Except for anthrax, few unexplained deaths in Connecticut could possibly be the result of the bioterrorism agents studied. In 47% of deaths from illnesses that could be anthrax, the diagnosis would likely have been missed. As of 2004, Connecticut physicians were not well prepared to intentionally or incidentally diagnose initial cases of anthrax or tularemia. More effective clinician education and surveillance strategies are needed to minimize the potential to miss initial cases in a bioterrorism attack. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2008;2:87–94)
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