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A 65-day-old girl presented to the emergency room with lethargy, requiring emergency venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for refractory cardiogenic shock. Initially, hypoplastic left heart syndrome was suspected. However, cor triatriatum with a pinpoint opening on the membrane was diagnosed based on a detailed echocardiographic examination. After membrane resection, the left heart size was restored. However, follow-up echocardiography performed 4 months later showed occlusion of both upper pulmonary veins and stenosis in both lower pulmonary veins. Hybrid balloon angioplasty was performed in all pulmonary veins, and stents were inserted into the right upper and lower pulmonary veins. Despite repeated balloon angioplasty, all pulmonary vein stenosis progressed over 6 months and the patient expired while waiting for a heart-lung transplant. Even after successful repair of cor triatriatum, short-term close follow-up is required for detecting the development of pulmonary vein stenosis.
The “Fast track” protocol is an early extubation strategy to reduce ventilator-associated complications and induce early recovery after open-heart surgery. This study compared clinical outcomes between operating room extubation and ICU extubation after open-heart surgery in patients with CHD.
We retrospectively reviewed 215 patients who underwent open-heart surgery for CHDs under the scheduled “Fast track” protocol between September 2016 and April 2022. The clinical endpoints were post-operative complications, including bleeding, respiratory and neurological complications, and hospital/ICU stays.
The patients were divided into operating room extubation (group O, n = 124) and ICU extubation (group I, n=91) groups. The most frequently performed procedures were patch closures of the atrial septal (107/215, 49.8%) and ventricular septal (89/215, 41.4%) defects. There were no significant differences in major post-operative complications or ICU and hospital stay duration between the two groups; however, patients in group I showed longer mechanical ventilatory support (0.0 min vs. 59.0 min (interquartile range: 17.0–169.0), p < 0.001). Patients in Group O showed higher initial lactate levels (3.2 ± 1.7 mg/dL versus 2.5 ± 2.0 mg/dL, p = 0.007) and more frequently used additional sedatives and opioid analgesics (33.1% versus 19.8%, p = 0.031).
Extubation in the operating room was not beneficial for patients during post-operative ICU or hospital stay. Early extubation in the ICU resulted in more stable hemodynamics in the immediate post-operative period and required less use of sedatives and analgesics.
To avoid rhythm disturbance, sutures for ventricular septal defect closure have been traditionally placed 2∼5 mm or more away from the edge of the ventricular septal defect. However, the traditional suturing method appears to induce right bundle branch block and tricuspid valve regurgitation after ventricular septal defect closure more than our alternative technique, shallow suturing just at the edge of the ventricular septal defect (shallower bites at the postero-inferior margin). We aimed to verify our clinical experience of perimembranous ventricular septal defect repair.
The alternative shallow suturing method has been applied since 2003 at our institution. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical data of 556 isolated perimembranous ventricular septal defect patients who underwent surgical closure from 2000 to 2019. We investigated the postoperative occurrence of right bundle branch block or progression of tricuspid regurgitation and analysed risk factors for right bundle branch block and tricuspid regurgitation.
Traditional suturing method (Group T) was used in 374 cases (66.8%), and alternative suturing method (Group A) was used in 186 cases (33.2%). The right bundle branch block occurred more frequently in Group T (39.6%) than in Group A (14.9%). In multivariable logistic regression analysis, Group T and patch material were significant risk factors for late right bundle branch block. More patients with progression of tricuspid regurgitation were found in Group T.
Shallow suturing just at the edge of the ventricular septal defect may reduce the rate of right bundle branch block occurrence and tricuspid regurgitation progression without other complications.
Invasive aspergillosis is a major cause of infectious disease in immunocompromised patients; however, cardiac involvement in pulmonary aspergillosis is not well-known. Two paediatric patients undergoing chemotherapy were diagnosed with cardiac aspergilloma, accompanied by pulmonary aspergillosis. In both patients, antibiotic and antifungal treatments were initiated immediately after the pneumonia was diagnosed; however, both died of multiple cerebral thromboembolisms.
Although coronary artery bypass grafting is not frequently performed in children, Kawasaki disease is one of the most common indications for coronary artery bypass grafting in children. Here, we reviewed the long-term clinical outcomes including graft patency after coronary artery bypass grafting.
Between March 2004 and March 2013, six patients with Kawasaki disease underwent coronary artery bypass grafting. All patients were male. Their median age was 13.0 years (interquartile range, 7.8–17.8 years) at the timing of coronary artery bypass grafting, and the median age at the onset of Kawasaki disease was 3.3 years (interquartile range, 1.0–7.0 years). Four patients presented with multiple lesions including aneurysms.
The median follow-up duration was 12.1 years (interquartile range, 9.5–13.1 years), and there were no operative complications or overall mortality. One patient had pre-operative symptoms such as exertional chest pain and dyspnoea on exertion, whereas one patient had ventricular tachyarrhythmia. There was an improvement in subjective symptoms after surgery in two patients. The left internal thoracic artery, right internal thoracic artery, and saphenous vein were used in five (83.3%), one (16.7%), and two (33.3%) cases, respectively. In all six patients, post-operative single-photon emission CT findings showed improved perfusion compared with pre-operative single-photon emission CT. All grafts were patent as confirmed by coronary angiography or CT angiography.
Coronary artery bypass grafting could be a good surgical option in children with coronary lesions caused by Kawasaki disease in terms of graft patency and myocardial perfusion.
This research investigated patients who underwent surgery for a dilated aorta associated with a connective tissue disease or inflammatory vasculitis in children and adolescents.
Materials and Methods:
The medical records of 11 patients who underwent aortic surgery for dilatation resulting from a connective tissue disease or inflammatory vasculitis between 2000 and 2017 were retrospectively reviewed.
The median age and body weight of the patients were 9.6 years (range 5.4 months–15.5 years) and 25.8 kg (range 6.8–81.5), respectively. The associated diseases were Marfan syndrome (n = 3), Loeys-Dietz syndrome (n = 3), Kawasaki disease (n = 1), Takayasu arteritis (n = 1), PHACE syndrome (n = 1), tuberous sclerosis (n = 1), and unknown (n = 1). The most common initially affected area was the ascending aorta. During the 66.4 ± 35.9 months of follow-up, two Marfan syndrome patients died, and four patients (one Marfan syndrome and three Loeys-Dietz syndrome) had repeated aortic operation. Except for one patient, the functional class was well maintained in all patients who were followed up.
Cases of surgical treatment for a dilated aorta associated with a connective tissue disease and inflammatory vasculitis are rare in children and adolescents at our institution. Most of the patients in this study showed a tolerable postoperative course. However, the aorta showed progressive dilation over time even after surgical treatment, especially in patients with Loeys-Dietz syndrome. In these patients, close and more frequent regular follow-up is required.
A 45-year-old man with dyspnoea and palpitations exhibited a unique systemic-to-pulmonary veno-venous connection on preoperative CT images. A window of 31.5-mm diameter was evident between the superior caval vein and the middle pulmonary vein, which was normally connected to the left atrium via a 30-mm-diameter orifice. The atrial septum was intact.
Pulmonary valve replacement is being performed with increasing frequency in patients with various congenital heart diseases. Chronic pulmonary regurgitation after repair of tetralogy of Fallot is a typical situation that requires pulmonary valve replacement. Chronic pulmonary regurgitation after repair of tetralogy of Fallot can lead to right ventricular dilatation, biventricular dysfunction, heart failure symptoms, arrhythmias, and sudden death. Although pulmonary valve replacement can lead to improvement in functional class and a substantial decrease or normalisation of right ventricular volumes, the optimal timing of pulmonary valve replacement in patients with chronic pulmonary regurgitation is still unknown. There are several options for surgical pulmonary valve replacement. However, no ideal pulmonary valve substitute exists currently and most of the surgically implanted pulmonary valves will eventually require re-replacement. This article will review options and timing of surgical pulmonary valve insertion in patients with chronic pulmonary regurgitation after repair of tetralogy of Fallot.
Relief of right ventricular outflow tract obstruction in tetralogy of Fallot or similar physiology often results in pulmonary regurgitation. The resultant chronic volume overload can lead to right ventricular dilatation, biventricular dysfunction, heart failure symptoms, arrhythmias, and sudden death. Although pulmonary valve replacement can lead to improvement in functional class and a substantial decrease or normalisation of right ventricular volumes, the optimal timing of pulmonary valve replacement is not well defined. Benefits of pulmonary valve replacement have to be weighed against the risks of this procedure, including subsequent reoperation. This article will review the benefits and risks of pulmonary valve replacement, options for pulmonary valve substitute, and timing of pulmonary valve replacement in patients with chronic pulmonary regurgitation after relief of right ventricular outflow tract obstruction.
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