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A reproductive population of the Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), an adventive insect from Asia, was discovered in 2003 in an urban landscape in Ontario, Canada. This polyphagous beetle, which attacks maples, Acer spp. (Sapindaceae), had the potential to seriously and permanently alter the composition and structure of forests in eastern North America. The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) developed and implemented an eradication programme, with partners from various agencies in both Canada and the United States of America. Surveys were used to delineate the infestation and establish a regulated area around it. Treatment consisted of removing and destroying both trees with signs of A. glabripennis injury and trees assumed at high risk of being injured within the regulated area. After nine years of monitoring the regulated area, the CFIA declared A. glabripennis eradicated on 5 April 2013. Herein, we detail the response undertaken, summarise lessons learned, and provide preliminary observations and results pertaining to the arrival, establishment, and spread of A. glabripennis in Ontario.
Laboratory tests with selected carbamate, organophosphorus, and pyrethroid insecticides demonstrated that the pyrethroid permethrin has the best potential for controlling newly hatched larvae of Zeiraphera canadensis Mut. and Free. Permethrin possessed high crawling contact toxicity (toxicity of insecticide deposits on foliage when contacted by crawling larvae) and direct contact toxicity to first-instar larvae and exhibited long residual effectiveness on potted, white spruce trees. Chlorpyrifos, fenitrothion, mexacarbate, and methomyl had high crawling contact toxicity but short residual activity. Azinphos-methyl appeared to possess long residual effectiveness but relatively low crawling contact toxicity. Aminocarb and thiodicarb exhibited short residual effectiveness and relatively low toxicity. In field trials, an aerial application of permethrin (70 g/ha) at egg hatch resulted in an 81% population reduction and limited the destruction of tree leaders to 9%. Leader destruction was greater than 19% after treatments of permethrin at 35 g AI/ha or aminocarb at 180 g AI/ha or aminocarb twice at 90 g AI/ha. Leader destruction in an untreated plantation was 51%.
Studies on the reproductive biology of the spruce budmoth, Zeiraphera canadensis Mut. & Free., were conducted in northern New Brunswick. Observations of adults under insectary conditions revealed that peak mating occurred around midnight, and that copulation lasted on average 4.3 h. The age of males and females at mating as well as their longevity is provided for both years. The pre-oviposition period was similar for both years, 6.1 and 6.3 days in 1984 and 1985, respectively. The oviposition period decreased from 6.1 days in 1984 to 4.4 days in 1985. The total fecundity was 32.9 eggs per female in 1984 and 21.8 eggs per female in 1985. The mean age-specific oviposition rate under 1984 field conditions is also presented. The importance of these results in determining the proper timing of adulticidal sprays against Z. canadensis is discussed.
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