Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) exhibits a facultative pupal diapause, which depends on temperature and photoperiod. Pupal diapause is induced at 20°C by short photoperiods and inhibited by long photoperiods during the larval stage. However, in some pupae (35% of males and 57% of females) of a non-selected field population from Okayama Prefecture (34.6°N), diapause is not induced by short photoperiods. In the present experiment, the importance of temperature for diapause induction was studied in the non-diapausing strain, which was selected from such individuals reared at 20°C under a short photoperiod of 10L:14D. Furthermore, the sensitive stage for thermal determination of pupal diapause was determined by transferring larvae of various instars and pupae between 20°C and 15°C. Diapause was induced by 15°C without respect to photoperiod. When larvae or pupae reared from eggs at 20°C under a short or a long photoperiod were transferred to 15°C in the periods of the middle fifth instar to the first three days after pupation, the diapause induction rate was significantly reduced in both males and females, especially in females. In contrast, when larvae or pupae reared at 15°C were transferred to 20°C in the same periods, diapause was induced in males, but not in females. However, the diapause induction rate of pupae transferred to 20°C on the fourth day after pupation was significantly increased in females. The results show that temperature is the major diapause cue in the photoperiod-insensitive strain and the periods of middle fifth larval instar to early pupal stage are the thermal sensitive stages for pupal diapause induction with some different responses to temperatures between males and females in H. armigera.