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The remarkable progress in nonpolar and semipolar devices based on gallium nitride (GaN) in recent years has been driven by not only advancements in the epitaxial growth technique but also improvements in the quality of bulk nonpolar and semipolar GaN substrates. At present, high-quality nonpolar/semipolar substrates are only made by slicing thick bulk GaN crystals grown by hydride vapor-phase epitaxy (HVPE). Although HVPE is currently the most successful method for obtaining high-quality bulk GaN crystals, it is still difficult to obtain uniform crystals with large diameters and thicknesses. The size of the nonpolar/semipolar substrates has been limited by the growth thickness along the c-axis of bulk GaN crystals. Here we review the growth of bulk GaN crystals by HVPE to achieve high-quality and large-sized nonpolar and semipolar substrates.
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