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Previous cross-sectional studies have demonstrated obesity rates in children with CHD and the general paediatric population. We reviewed longitudinal data to identify factors predisposing to the development of obesity in children, hypothesising that age may be an important risk factor for body mass index growth.
Retrospective electronic health records were reviewed in all 5–20-year-old CHD patients seen between 2011 and 2015, and in age-, sex-, and race/ethnicity-matched controls. Subjects were stratified into aged cohorts of 5–10, 11–15, and 15–20. Annualised change in body mass index percentile (BMI%) over this period was compared using paired Student’s t-test. Linear regression analysis was performed with the CHD population.
A total of 223 CHD and 223 matched controls met the inclusion criteria for analysis. Prevalence of combined overweight/obesity did not differ significantly between the CHD cohort (24.6–25.8%) and matched controls (23.3–29.1%). Univariate analysis demonstrated a significant difference of BMI% change in the age cohort of 5–10 (CHD +4.1%/year, control +1.7%/year, p=0.04), in male sex (CHD +1.8%/year, control −0.3%/year, p=0.01), and status-post surgery (CHD 2.03%/year versus control 0.37%, p=0.02). Linear regression analysis within the CHD subgroup demonstrated that age 5–10 years (+4.80%/year, p<0.001) and status-post surgery (+3.11%/year, p=0.013) were associated with increased BMI% growth.
Prevalence rates of overweight/obesity did not differ between children with CHD and general paediatric population over a 5-year period. Longitudinal data suggest that CHD patients in the age cohort 5–10 and status-post surgery may be at increased risk of BMI% growth relative to peers with structurally normal hearts.
The prevalence of right ventricular dysfunction in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy is incompletely studied in children. Furthermore, right ventricular function may signal worse outcomes. We evaluated recently published right ventricular function echocardiographic indices in identifying dysfunction in children with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy and the impact of right ventricular dysfunction on long-term prognosis.
A retrospective database review of right ventricular function indices in 30 patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy was compared with 60 age- and sex-matched controls from January, 2001 until December, 2010. Right ventricular function was assessed by Doppler tissue peak systolic S′, early and late diastolic E′ and A′ waves and isovolumic acceleration at the tricuspid valve annulus; pulsed wave Doppler tricuspid valve inflow E and A waves; right ventricular myocardial performance index; tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion; right ventricular fractional area change.
Right ventricular systolic and diastolic function in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy was significantly impaired. All measured indices except for isovolumic acceleration and fractional area change were significantly reduced, with a p-value less than 0.05. There was no right ventricular index predictive of death or transplantation. Patients with poor outcome were significantly more likely to need inotropic support (p-value equal to 0.018), be placed on a ventricular assist device (p equal to 0.005), and have a worse left ventricular ejection fraction z-score (p-value equal to 0.002).
Right ventricular dysfunction is under-recognised in children presenting with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. The need for clinical circulatory support and left ventricular ejection fraction z-score less than minus 8 were primary determinants of outcome, independent of the degree of derangement in right ventricular function.
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