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Peltigera globulata Miadl. & Magain, a new species in the P. ponojensis/monticola species complex of section Peltigera, is formally described. This clade was previously given the interim designation Peltigera sp. 17. It is found in sun-exposed and xeric habitats at high altitudes in Peru and Ecuador. Peltigera globulata can be easily recognized by its irregularly globulated margins covered mostly by thick, white pruina, somewhat resembling the sorediate thallus margins of P. soredians, another South American species from section Peltigera. The hypervariable region of ITS1 (ITS1-HR), which is in general highly variable among species of section Peltigera, does not have diagnostic value for species identification within the P. ponojensis/monticola complex. Nevertheless, no significant level of gene flow was detected among eight lineages representing a clade of putative species (including P. globulata) within this complex. ITS sequences from the holotype specimens of P. monticola Vitik. (collected in 1979) and P. soredians Vitik. (collected in 1981) and lectotype specimens of P. antarctica C. W. Dodge (collected in 1941) and P. aubertii C. W. Dodge (collected in 1952) were successfully obtained through Sanger and Illumina metagenomic sequencing. BLAST results of these sequences revealed that the type specimen of P. monticola falls within the P. monticola/ponojensis 7 clade, which represents P. monticola s. str., and confirmed that the type specimen of P. aubertii falls within a clade identified previously as P. aubertii based on morphology. The ITS sequence from the type specimen of P. soredians, which superficially resembles P. globulata, confirms its placement in the P. rufescens clade. Finally, we discovered that the name P. antarctica was erroneously applied to a lineage in the P. ponojensis/monticola clade. The ITS sequence from the type specimen of P. antarctica represents a lineage within the P. rufescens clade, which is sister to the P. ponojensis/monticola clade.
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