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Childhood adversity and anxiety have been associated with increased risk for internalizing disorders later in life and with a range of brain structural abnormalities. However, few studies have examined the link between harsh parenting practices and brain anatomy, outside of severe maltreatment or psychopathology. Moreover, to our knowledge, there has been no research on parenting and subclinical anxiety symptoms which remain persistent over time during childhood (i.e., between 2.5 and 9 years old). Here, we examined data in 94 youth, divided into four cells based on their levels of coercive parenting (high / low) and of anxiety (high / low) between 2.5 and 9 years old. Anatomical images were analyzed using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and FreeSurfer. Smaller gray matter volumes in the prefrontal cortex regions and in the amygdala were observed in youth with high versus low levels of harsh parenting over time. In addition, we observed significant interaction effects between parenting practices and subclinical anxiety symptoms in rostral anterior cingulate cortical thickness and in amygdala volume. These youth should be followed further in time to identify which youth will or will not go on to develop an anxiety disorder, and to understand factors associated with the development of sustained anxiety psychopathology.
Fast pixelated detectors incorporating direct electron detection (DED) technology are increasingly being regarded as universal detectors for scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), capable of imaging under multiple modes of operation. However, several issues remain around the post-acquisition processing and visualization of the often very large multidimensional STEM datasets produced by them. We discuss these issues and present open source software libraries to enable efficient processing and visualization of such datasets. Throughout, we provide examples of the analysis methodologies presented, utilizing data from a 256 × 256 pixel Medipix3 hybrid DED detector, with a particular focus on the STEM characterization of the structural properties of materials. These include the techniques of virtual detector imaging; higher-order Laue zone analysis; nanobeam electron diffraction; and scanning precession electron diffraction. In the latter, we demonstrate a nanoscale lattice parameter mapping with a fractional precision ≤6 × 10−4 (0.06%).
For W. B. Yeats, George Berkeley’s youthful reference to ‘We Irish’ marked the beginning of a national intellect based on a perceived distinction between Irish philosophical idealism and the materialism supposedly characteristic of the English. Upon this enigmatic remark of Berkeley’s, Yeats erected a system that offered to illuminate the national characteristics of eighteenth-century authors – most importantly, Swift, Goldsmith, and Burke – including a profound suspicion of abstract ideas. The wealth of eighteenth-century Irish writing, still in the process of recuperation, is not easily accommodated within Yeats’s scheme, however, more readily revealing diversity than similarity. Yet the fact of Irish birth, education, or employment, as much as their subject matter, did mark out writers as Irish, whether the identification was self-willed or imposed by those outside the island. The ways in which national identity manifested itself between 1700 and 1780 are explored through examples of prose, verse, and drama written or published both in Ireland and abroad. In so doing, the chapter outlines the first halting attempts, by male and female writers including John Toland, George Berkeley, Jonathan Swift, Henry Brooke, Frances Sheridan, Elizabeth Sheridan, and Edmund Burke, to create the idea of a national Irish literature in English.
It is apparent, then, that both the advancement of education and the advancement of religion are firmly and favourably rooted in the public policy of our law. Moreover, it is not stretching matters to say that even in the modern, secular age the advancement of religion is rooted in our law and in our Constitution. That policy is readily discernible in the declaratory preambles to the Canadian Bill of Rights […] and the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms which both affirm that Canada ‘is founded upon principles that’ acknowledge and recognize ‘the supremacy of God’, and ‘the rule of law’. That is not to say that our country is even remotely similar to a theocracy such as have been established in past ages and in the present day in some countries. Far from it. We do not have any established church or State religion. Those Canadians who profess atheism, agnosticism or the philosophy of secularism are just as secure in their civil rights and freedoms as are those who profess religion. So it is that while Canada may aptly be characterized as a secular State, yet, being declared by both Parliament and the Constitution to be founded upon principles which recognize ‘the supremacy of God’, it cannot be said that our public policy is entirely neutral in terms of ‘the advancement of religion’ […] The legal and constitutional recognition of God necessarily imports and involves a polity which leans in favour of belief, or faith— that is, the profession of religion among our people.
Justice Muldoon, Federal Court of Canada, McBurney v Canada
Part I: Introduction
Canadian law recognizes the ‘advancement of religion’ as a charitable purpose, such that organizations which ‘advance religion’ enjoy numerous advantages. As reflected in the Federal Court's comments above, this has thus far been deemed constitutionally sound. However, it has been observed that recent legal trends appear to be rendering the ‘advancement of religion category increasingly vulnerable to arguments for its demise’. Indeed, as Charter jurisprudence continues to emphasize the importance of ‘state neutrality’, in which the state must ‘neither favour nor hinder any religion’, the law's recognition of ‘advancement of religion’ as a charitable purpose may increasingly face challenges.
Psychotic experiences (PEs) are common in childhood and adolescence and their association with mental disorders is well-established. We aim to conduct a quantitative synthesis the literature on the relationship between childhood and adolescent PEs and (i) any mental disorder; and (ii) specific categories of mental disorder, while stratifying by study design.
Three electronic databases (PUBMED, PsycINFO and EMBASE) were searched from inception to August 2017 for all the published literature on childhood and adolescent PEs and mental disorder (outcome) in non-help-seeking community samples. Study quality was assessed using a recognised quality assessment tool for observational studies. Two authors conducted independent data extraction. Pooled odds ratios were calculated for mental disorders using random-effects models. Additional analyses were conducted investigating different categories of mental disorder while stratifying by study design.
Fourteen studies from 13 community samples (n = 29 517) were identified with 9.8% of participants reporting PEs. PEs were associated with a three-fold increased risk of any mental disorder [odds ratio (OR) 3.08, confidence interval (CI) 2.26–4.21, k = 12]. PEs were associated with four-fold increase risk of psychotic disorder (OR 3.96, CI 2.03–7.73, population-attributable-fraction: 23.2%, k = 5). In addition, PEs were associated with an increased risk of affective disorders, anxiety disorders, behavioural disorders and substance-use disorders. Few longitudinal studies have investigated childhood and adolescent PEs and subsequent non-psychotic disorders which limited a meaningful synthesis and interpretation of these results.
This meta-analysis confirms that PEs are prevalent in childhood and adolescent community samples and are associated with a variety of mental disorders beyond psychotic disorders. Further longitudinal research is necessary to fully determine the longitudinal relationship between PEs and non-psychotic disorders.
In 2001, the Institute of Medicine identified healthcare transparency as a necessity for re-designing a quality healthcare system; however, despite widespread calls for publicly available transparent data, the goal remains elusive. The transparent reporting of outcome data and the results of congenital heart surgery is critical to inform patients and families who have both the wish and the ability to choose where care is provided. Indeed, in an era where data and means of communication of data have never been easier, the paucity of transparent data reporting is paradoxical. We describe the development of a quality dashboard used to inform staff, patients, and families about the outcomes of congenital heart surgery at the Stollery Children’s Hospital.
Stenosis of the internal carotid artery reduces the flow velocity in the ophthalmic artery. Lowered velocity permits increased red cell aggregation and decreased red cell deformability which increases viscosity.
Contrary to the theory of remotely originating emboli, this is an alternate hypothesis regarding transient attacks of ocular and cerebral ischemia.
The ophthalmic artery circulation time was measured in two groups of patients. The circulation time was defined as the interval between the appearance of contrast media in the siphon of the internal carotid artery and in the ocular choroid. The measurement was made on 151 angiograms of 108 subjects. These vessels were normal. An additional 76 patients had 108 angiograms which showed various amounts of internal carotid artery stenosis. These 76 patients had transient ischemic attacks; retinal, cerebral, or both.
There is a significant difference in the ophthalmic artery circulation time in the two groups. The slowing in the ophthalmic artery is related to the degree of internal carotid artery narrowing.
The circulation time in a cerebral branch of the internal carotid was not measured. It is presumed that stenosis of the internal carotid artery would have the same effect on a cerebral artery as on the ophthalmic artery.
There has been a recent renewal of interest in the extracranial repair of cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea because of the relatively high morbidity associated with the transcranial approach. The authors describe an extracranial approach that involves packing of the sphenoid and ethmoid sinuses on the side of the CSF leak. A case of successful treatment of CSF rhinorrhea by this method is presented. The extracranial approach may be advantageous for the repair of CSF rhinorrhea and the authors advocate an increase in its utilization by neurosurgeons and otolaryngologists working as a team.
Background: Periodontoid synovial cysts are rare lesions which may produce symptomatic cervico-medullary compression. Method: We report such a patient, whose progressive neurological deterioration required surgical treatment by transoral odontoidectomy and decompression. Results: The diagnostic and theraputic interventions are described, including a lumbar puncture which precipitated a transient loss of consciousness and respiratory arrest. Surgery achieved clinical improvement, without complications or need for operative stablization. Detailed neuropathology is presented, as well as a literature review. Conclusion: Appropriate neuroradiological assessment is required in patients with suspected cervico-medullary compression, and symptomatic periodontoid synovial cysts may respond well to transoral surgical decompression.
Stereotactically delivered radiation is now an accepted treatment for patients with acoustic neuroma. In some cases, patient preference may be the reason for its selection, while in others neurosurgeons may select it for patients who are elderly or have significant risk factors for conventional surgery. The majority of patients with acoustic neuroma treatment with stereotactic radiosurgery have been treated with the Gamma Knife, with follow ups of over 25 years in some instances. Other radiosurgical modalities utilizing the linear accelerator have been developed and appear promising, but there is no long-term follow up. Canada does not possess a Gamma Knife facility, and its government-funded hospital and medical insurance agencies have made it difficult for patients to obtain reimbursement for Gamma Knife treatments in other countries. We review the literature to date on the various forms of radiation treatment for acoustic neuroma and discuss the current issues facing physicians and patients in Canada who wish to obtain their treatment of choice.
Having a depressed mother is one of the strongest predictors of depression in adolescence. We investigated whether the stress of having a mother with recurrent depression is associated with dysfunction in adolescents in the HPA axis and whether the tendency to use involuntary coping strategies in dealing with this stress is associated with exacerbation of dysfunction in this system. Sixty-four never-disordered daughters of mothers with recurrent depression (high risk) and 64 never-disordered daughters of never-disordered mothers (low risk) completed diurnal cortisol and stress assessments. High-risk girls secreted more diurnal cortisol than did low-risk girls. Whereas low-risk girls secreted higher levels of cortisol with increasing stress associated with having a depressed mother, no such relation was present in high-risk girls. Finally, in contrast to low-risk girls, girls at familial risk for depression who more frequently used involuntary versus voluntary coping exhibited the greatest elevations in diurnal cortisol. These findings indicate that a tendency to utilize involuntary, as opposed to voluntary, coping strategies in dealing with stress involving maternal depression exacerbates already high levels of cortisol in youth at risk for depression. Future research that examines whether interventions aimed at increasing the use of voluntary coping strategies normalizes HPA axis dysfunction is of interest.
This study aimed to describe the recovery of impairments after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) over a 3-year period. An inception cohort over 2 years was recruited from 11 brain injury rehabilitation units participating in a state-wide program. The 131 individuals with TBI were assessed at admission to the rehabilitation program, 18 months and 3 years post-trauma. This report described results from the Disability Rating Scale (DRS) and Mayo-Portland Adaptability Index (MPAI). Regression analyses, examining the influence of five acute injury variables on DRS and MPAI, revealed that posttraumatic amnesia (PTA) was a significant individual predictor. Data were thus analysed according to duration of PTA: 1 to 2 weeks (n = 19), 2 to 4 weeks (n = 44) and more than 4 weeks (n = 68). At program admission there was poorer overall level of functioning on the DRS in the longest PTA group, but no difference between the shorter PTA groups. Significant improvements occurred on the DRS for all PTA groups over the first 18 months posttrauma, with improvements continuing between 18 months and 3 years. At the 3-year follow-up, frequency data from the MPAI indicated that clinically significant impairments in mobility, hand function, communication and behaviour were uncommon in the shorter PTA groups, although 36% to 47% continued to experience cognitive impairments. Impairments were common in the longest PTA group in some areas, particularly cognition where two thirds or more continued to experience clinically significant impairments in attention, memory and novel problem-solving. These results confirm the predictive significance of PTA duration regarding longer-term level of recovery. They also highlight the limitation in classifying the ‘severe’ TBI category as an homogenous group: significant subgroup differences occurred on medical and functional variables at program admission, 18 months and 3 years posttrauma. These data further substantiate the persistence of neuropsychological impairments in the face of good physical recovery at all levels of severity within the severe TBI group.